Continue working with open ended responses Essay Example

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4. Findings

4.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the findings of a survey and interviews that were done in relation to the use of learning management systems by female academic staff in universities in Saudi Arabia.

4.2 Background Information

This section presents the findings of a survey that was done in relation to the use of learning management systems by female academic staff in universities in Saudi Arabia using open- and closed-ended questions.

The first part of this section will outline background information about participants in the survey including: the institution (i.e. university) in which the survey participants were employed; specific colleges and departments the participants were employed in; duration for which they had worked in their respective institutions; their highest level of education; and their job position at the time of carrying out the survey.

It is important to note that this web-based survey was aimed at female academic staff only because the study was carried out in two universities, one university employed both male and female staff and both genders completed the survey. As the research targeted female participants only, the data was filtered to show only the responses made by female participants, which were analysed in the findings. Therefore, the findings presented in this section reflect the responses provided by female participants only.

4.2.1 University of Employment

One of the survey questions asked participants to identify the institution in which they worked. From the filtered results, there were 171 responses, out which 91 participants (approximately 53%) indicated that they were employed at Princes Nourah bint AbdulrahmanUniversity while the remaining 80 specified that they were employed at KingSaudUniversity (47%). This means that both universities were equally represented in the results. As outlined in the ethics considerations (see Section 3.9), to ensure comparisons cannot be made between the two universities, the results presented in this chapter are aggregated.

4.2.2 Courses/subjects that the participants use Blackboard as part of their teaching

In order to understand the key research questions around the extent to which the survey participants use Blackboard as part of their teaching practice, a question was framed to allow the respondents to indicate the number of subjects or courses in which they used the learning management system.

Of the 174, 103 participants indicated they did not use Blackboard in teaching any course/subject. This means that over half of the participants (59.2%) were not using Blackboard in teaching any subject/course. Thirty-two responses (18.4 %) suggested the use of Blackboard in teaching some of the courses/subjects while nine participants (5.2 %) indicated they used LMS in teaching most of the subjects/courses. Another 30 participants (17.2 % of the total number) indicated that they used Blackboard in all the subjects/courses that they teach. These results are shown in Table #.

Table #: Courses/subjects in which participants use Blackboard as part of their teaching activity

Frequency

Number of courses

For some of the courses/subjects I teach

For most of the courses/subjects I teach

For all of the courses/subjects I teach

These findings will be used as a cross tabulation for a number of other tables and findings to compare and contrast the beliefs, dispositions and practices between those who do and do not use Blackboard in their teaching (see Section 4.#, 4.# and 4.#).

4.2.3 Participants’ Experience in using Blackboard in Teaching

The participants in the survey were asked to specify the number of years they had been using Blackboard in their teaching activities. This question was designed to provide an understanding of the participants’ experience in using LMS and triangulate the data with the previous question. The question was framed as “How many years have you been using Blackboard as part of your teaching?” The results from 173 responses showed that 99 participants (or 57%) had never used Blackboard. This is consistent with the findings in the previous question where 59.2% of the participants indicated they were not using Blackboard in teaching any subject/course. Fifty-seven participants (32%) indicated that they had used Blackboard for between one and three years while 14 of them (7.9%) noted that they had used the LMS for between four and six years. Relatively few participants indicated that they had used Blackboard for seven years or more. They may have been influenced by the fact that elearning is still in its early stages as outlined by (Al Alhareth, 2013). These findings are represented in Table # below.

Table #: Participants’ years of experience in using Blackboard in teaching

Frequency

Never had Blackboard experience

1-3 years

4-6 years

7-9 years

More than 9 years

Similar to the previous question, the findings from this question was used to cross tabulate with number of other questions to compare and contrast the beliefs, dispositions and practices between those who have Blackboard experience (see Section 4.#, 4.# and 4.#).

4.2.4 Participants’ College

Participants were also required to indicate the various colleges of the universities where they worked. Table # shows the various colleges in which the participants teach.

Table #: Distribution of the participants from different university colleges

Number of participants

Responses (%)

College of Community

College of Dentistry

College of Nursing

College of Science

College of Pharmacy

College of Computer Science

College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences

College of Business Administration

College of Arts

College of Social Services

College of Education

Arabic Language Teaching Institute for Non-Arabic Speakers

College of Arts and Design

College of Languages and Translation

Deanship of E-Learning and Distance Education

College of Applied Medical Sciences

College of Medicine

College of Applied Studies and Community

Foundation Year

KingKhalidHospital

The majority of use is from College of Education (18.67%) and College of Arts (16.26%). Followed by the College of Business Administration with 10.84%. The lowest were from College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Foundation Year, Medical City, and King Khalid Hospital with each having 0.60%. However, this does not provide an adequate evaluation of LMS use according to areas. As each university use different college names, these were grouped as per discipline (using the Digital Commons platform http://digitalcommons.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1008&context=reference) areas. By doing so, it is then possible to analyse which discipline areas are adopting LMS to help answer the research question: To what extent, does female academic staff currently use LMS in KSA universities?

4.2.5 Participants’ Teaching Experience

This question provided an understanding of how long each of the research participants have been teaching in higher education. Responses from the 176 filtered results are represented in the table below.

Table #: Participants’ Teaching Experience

Frequency

Under 1 year

1 — 5 years

6 — 10 years

11 — 15 years

More than 15 years

The majority of the respondents had teaching experience of 1-5 years, which was 37.1% of the population. A quarter of participants had between 6-10 years teaching experience, with approximately 30% of respondents having 10 or more years experience. However, the intent in asking this question was to analyse how different levels of teaching experience may be related with different levels of LMS use. Therefore, this question was cross-tabulated with questions about Blackboard experience and those who do not use Blackboard in their teaching Practice.

Table #: Teaching Experience and Lack of Technology Adoption

Never had Blackboard experience

How many years of teaching experience do you have?

Under 1 year

1 — 5 years

6 — 10 years

11 — 15 years

More than 15 years

As noted in the literature, experience can determine intention and usage behaviour towards technology (Venkatesh et al., 2003). There is a similar outcome in this research. For instance, most of the participants who had been teaching for less than one year never used Blackboard in any of the courses as evidenced by 72.2% of the population in which 81.8% had no experience. The trend was that for increased number of years teaching in higher education, the likelihood of using Blackboard increased. However, for those participants with more than 15 years’ experience, 52.8% had not used Blackboard technology. This in an increase from the previous two groupings of 6-10 years and 11-15 years who recorded 50%. So there may be more factors that influence technology use than just experience alone.

4.2.6 Participants’ Highest Academic Degree

The participants also responded to a question regarding their level of education, framed as “What is your highest academic degree?” From the 178 responses, 27 (15.2%) held a bachelor’s degree, 80 (44.9%) a master’s degree, and 68 (38.2%) a doctoral degree. Deeper analysis was done to determine how education level might correlate with different levels of LMS use.

Never had Blackboard experience

What is your highest academic degree?

Bachelor

Doctorate

As seen in the table above, the trend was that the higher the participants’ qualification, the more likely it was that Blackboard would be used in their teaching and learning. For instance, 75% of respondents who held a bachelor’s degree population did not currently use Blackboard in comparison to 54% of those who held a doctoral degree.

4.2.7 Participants’ Positions

The participants were asked about their job positions as members of faculty. Of the 177 responses, 43 (24.2%) indicated that they were teaching assistants and 16 (9%) identified as instructors. The highest responses were for the lecturer and assistant professor positions (57 (32%) and 53 (29.8%) respectively). This is represented below in Table #..

Table #: Participants’ teaching positions

Frequency

Teaching Assistant

Lecturer

Assistant Professor

Again this question was cross tabulated with not using Blackboard currently or in their Blackboard experience to date.

Table #: Participants’ Teaching Positions and Technology Use

Never had Blackboard experience

 What is your position?

Teaching Assistant

Lecturer

Assistant Professor

Unlike the previous questions where experience and level of highest degree showed a trend between position and Blackboard use. One interesting trend to note, however, was that at all levels of participants there is a higher percentage for those who currently do not use technology and those who have never had experience of Blackboard. It could, therefore, be surmised that technology use has decreased as participants have taken on higher level roles.

4.2.8 Age of the participants

One of the questions required the participants to state their age. The results from 178 responses suggest that generally few (5 individuals or 2.8%) of the participants were aged below 25 years. The age groups of 26-30 years and 31-35 had 49 (27.5%) and 52 (29.2%) responses respectively. These were followed by the age groups of 36-40 years and 41-45 years with 25 (14%) and 26 (14.6%). Considerably fewer staff members were aged above 45 years, given that those in the category of 46­-50 years were 10 (5.6%), those aged between 51 and 55 years were eight (4.5 %), and there were only three individuals aged above 55 years (1.7 percent). These figures are presented in table #.

Table #: Age of the participants

Frequency

Under 25 years

26 — 30 years

31 — 35 years

36 — 40 years

41 — 45 years

46 — 50 years

51 — 55 years

Over 55 years

Age was cross tabulated with how many courses/subjects used Blackboard represented in Table #.

Table #: Age and Blackboard Use

How many courses/subjects do you use Blackboard as / part of your teaching?

For some of the courses/subjects I teach

For most of the courses/subjects I teach

For all of the courses/subjects I teach

What is your Age?

Under 25 years

0

26 — 30 years

31 — 35 years

36 — 40 years

41 — 45 years

46 — 50 years

51 — 55 years

0

Over 55 years

0

4.2.9 Nationalities of the survey participants

The research participants identified their nationalities by responding to the question “What is your nationality?” Out of the 177 responses to this question, 91.6% (163) indicated that they were Saudi. The remaining 14 participants (7.9%) noted that they were of other nationalities (including Jordanians, Egyptians, French and Tunisians).

Table #: Nationality and Technology Use

How many courses/subjects do you use Blackboard as / part of your teaching?

For some courses

For most courses

What is your nationality?

Non-Saudi

0

4.2.10 Number of courses/subjects that the participants typically teach over a one-year period

The participants highlighted the number of courses or subjects that they had taught over a period of one year, which is represented in the table below. Most respondents were teaching 1-3 subjects (68%), 4-6 subjects (19.7%) and 7-9 subjects (7.3%). However, only 2.2% were teaching more than 9 subjects.

Table #: Courses/subjects taught by the participants over a one-year period

Frequency

More than 9 courses/subjects

In the data analysis this questions was cross tabulated with Question 11 to determine if teaching more or fewer courses influenced their use of LMS (this related to the research question of how external factors might influence LMS use).

Table #: Number of Courses Taught over a one-year period and Blackboard Use

How many courses/subjects do you use Blackboard as / part of your teaching?

For some courses

For most courses

What is the number of courses/subjects you typically teach over a 1 year period?

0

More than 9 courses

0

4.2.11 Blackboard technologies in which the participants have been trained

A key external factor identified in the literature review as an enabler was the impact of training. Therefore, the web-based survey investigated the different areas of technology in Blackboard in which the participants had received training. Specifically, the survey participants were asked to select from a number of technologies that were provided, those that they were familiar with by way of having prior training in them. The question was stated as “Select the Blackboard technology/technologies in which you have training. (Select all that apply)”. The technologies that were provided on the questionnaire include Blackboard features, Discussion forums, ListServs, Chat Room, Teleconferencing, Videoconferencing, and Web-based lectures (Blackboard Collaborate). There was also an option for those who had not received any training to indicate ‘none’. As well, participants who had received training in Blackboard technologies that were not included in the questionnaire were advised to specify the various technologies that they were familiar with.

The findings obtained regarding the participants’ use of different Blackboard technologies are outlined in the table # below.

Table #: Blackboard technologies in which the participants have been trained

Responses

Blackboard Training

 Blackboard features

 Discussion forum

 ListServs

 Chat Room

 Teleconferencing

 Videoconferencing

 Web-based lectures (Blackboard Collaborate)

Most of the respondents had received no training in Blackboard (24.7%). A similar number of participants (23.4%) had been trained in general Blackboard features. Participants were asked to list additional features of Blackboard that they training in. They identified electronic exams, sending emails, use of groups and blogs, assessments, quizzes and grading systems.

4.3 Barriers, Incentives Attitudes and Perceptions

The second part of this section will outline responses from the open-ended questions to examine the reasons for using or not using Blackboard and some self-identified recommendations from participants that might increase Blackboard use.

4.3.1 Possible barriers to the adoption of Blackboard

In order to understand the possible barriers that make it difficult for the participants in the survey to use the Blackboard LMS, the participants were required to select from a list of items the response that best described their beliefs, feelings, or attitudes in regard to the possible barriers. This was based on a Likert scale in which the participants were to choose from five levels, whether they strongly disagreed, strongly disagreed, remained neutral (neither agreed nor disagreed), agreed or strongly agreed with each statement. The statements were based on issues such as the participants’ level of knowledge in using new technologies and Blackboard, time available to prepare materials for use on Blackboard, institutional policies regarding LMS use, and level of student support.The responses that were given to each statement are shown in the table below (Table #).

Table #: Possible barriers to the adoption of Blackboard.

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree nor Disagree

Strongly Agree

Std. Deviation

I feel I have adequate knowledge to use new technologies in education

I feel I have adequate knowledge to use Blackboard

I feel I have adequate knowledge about how to teach using Blackboard

I feel I have enough time to develop teaching and learning experiences on Blackboard

I feel the university has a clear Blackboard policy

I feel there is adequate campus network infrastructure to use Blackboard effectively

I feel there is adequate student support to use Blackboard effectively

I believe there is adequate access to technology for students to use Blackboard effectively

A variety of internal and external barriers are listed here, they range from policy, infrastructure, and access to technology for students. In this study the barriers had a mean between 2.9-3.6 with a standard deviation of 1.0-1.3. This indicates that the data was spread in the Likert scale. The mean indicates that some barriers were stronger than others.

Using the mean and strongly agree percentage as an indicator, the barrier that female academics identify that hinders their use of LMS is student support to use Blackboard effectively (mean of 2.9), followed closely by concerns about Blackboard policy (mean 2.93). The barrier which least affects their use of technology is their own knowledge about technology use (mean 3.6). Respondents reported that 61.2% agree or strongly agree that they have the necessary knowledge to adopt new technology in their classrooms while use of Blackboard for learning management was considered positively by 46.4% of the respondents. University policy and student support were viewed negatively by most of the respondents.

Table #: Barriers and Technology Use

How many courses/subjects do you use Blackboard as / part of your teaching?

I feel I have adequate knowledge to use new technologies

I feel I have adequate knowledge to use Blackboard

I feel I have adequate knowledge about how to teach using Blackboard

I feel I have enough time to develop teaching and learning

I feel the university has a clear Blackboard policy

I feel there is adequate campus network infrastructure…

I feel there is adequate student support to use Blackboard…

I believe there is adequate access to technology for students to use…

For some of the course

For most of the course

For all of the course

4.3.2 Factors that promote participation in using Blackboard (Incentive factors)

The survey also investigated the factors that could possibly encourage the participants to use Blackboard in teaching. In this regard, the participants were required to choose from a scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree in view of the statements that were provided. The statements bordered on issues such as the participants’ knowledge, relevance of the LMS, level of training, prospects for promotion, incentives provided, and the impact of Blackboard on teaching and student experiences. The responses regarding what promotes participation in the use of Blackboard among the survey participants are shown in table #.

Table #:Factors that promote participation in using Blackboard

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree nor Disagree

Strongly Agree

I have the knowledge I need to develop teaching and learning using Blackboard.

I believe that Blackboard is appropriate for my courses/subjects.

I feel I have the necessary training to prepare me to teach using Blackboard.

I believe that using Blackboard will increase my chances of being promoted.

I feel there are workload incentives if I use Blackboard.

I feel students will see the use of Blackboard positively in my course.

I feel there is incentives from the university to use Blackboard effectively.

I feel there are incentives from the government to use Blackboard effectively.

The focus of this question was to evaluate the factors that promote adoption of Blackboard technology based on incentive factors. Most agreed that they have the skills necessary or that the technology is appropriate for their courses and subjects. 40.6% of the respondents agree that the technology is appropriate for application in their classes. 45.7% indicated that the technology was effective because their students would consider it a positive development for their learning. 23.2% of the sample strongly agreed about the appropriateness of the technology to their classes. This indicates significant inefficiency of the universities in providing accessibility, training, and infrastructure for the adoption of the technology in their classes. The most widely accepted incentives for using Blackboard in the universities were the possibility of the students viewing the courses positively and the perceived usefulness in the classes. A significant number of the respondents reported that they felt they had all necessary training to adopt the programmes in their classes.

According to the means of the ratings given by the respondents, the most important incentives for use of Blackboard technology in learning management were effectiveness in classrooms, positive perceptions by the students, and the teachers having the necessary training to apply the technology in their class work. The least rated factor was incentives from the government because only 16.7% of the respondents felt that there were adequate incentives from government to promote use of the technology.

4.3.3 Participants’ attitudes and opinions regarding Blackboard

To determine the general attitudes and opinions of the survey participants regarding Blackboard, a set of general statements was presented to the participants. The statements included such aspects as the future of education, comparison of using Blackboard with classroom learning, the value of Blackboard, job-related effects of the LMS, impact of Blackboard on higher education, nature of Blackboard with regard to ease of use, impact of the LMS on students, tutors and universities, and relevance of Blackboard in regard to gender separation in higher learning institutions in Saudi Arabia. The participants’ responses are presented in the table below (table #).

Table #: Participants’ attitudes and opinions regarding Blackboard

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree nor Disagree

Strongly Agree

Std. Deviation

I believe Blackboard is the future of higher-education

I believe students tend to learn just as much in Blackboard environment as they do in the traditional classroom.

I believe Blackboard provides a valuable service to students

I am concerned that Blackboard will put my job at risk

I believe that Blackboard opens higher education to a broader range of students than traditional face-to-face education.

I believe Blackboard technology is too complicated for both the student and the faculty to be successful.

I believe Blackboard offers students enough opportunities for interaction

I believe Blackboard will create more stress for me as an instructor

I believe adopting Blackboard in Saudi universities will improve student learning

I believe adopting Blackboard in Saudi universities will encourage students to be more interested in learning

I believe that due to gender separation in the Saudi higher education, Blackboard is a good teaching tool

I believe adopting and developing Blackboard in the Saudi universities will create a challenge for the faculty

The data gives positive opinion and attitude regarding to Blackboard. The majority of participants were not concerned about Blackboard putting their jobs at risk but thought it was a valuable service.

Adoption of Blackboard in higher education among the respondents was mostly associated with the perception that it represents the future of higher education. About 73% of the respondents argue that it presents a valuable service to the students, while 62.5% consider it as being beneficial in opening up higher education for a wide range of students. The respondents in the sample also considered the issue of opportunities and improving the learning experience for the students heavily. This indicates a significant focus among the respondents on creating a beneficial learning environment and making learning interesting for the students. This means the perceived benefits to the students is a major enabler that presents a significant incentive for university faculty in developing and adopting the technology in their classes.

How many courses/subjects do you use Blackboard as / part of your teaching?

I believe Blackboard is the future of higher-education

I believe students tend to learn just as much in the Blackboard environment

I believe Blackboard provides a valuable service to students

I am concerned that Blackboard will put my job at risk

I believe that Blackboard opens highereducation to a broader range of students…

I believe Blackboard technology is too complicated…

I believe Blackboard offers students enough opportunities for interaction

I believe Blackboard will create more stress for me as an instructor

I believe adopting Blackboard in Saudi univerisities will improve student learning

I believe adopting Blackboard in Saudi universities will encourage students to be more interested in learning

I believe that due to gender separation in the Saudi higher education, Blackboard is a good teaching tool

I believe adopting and developing Blackboard in the Saudi universities will create a challenge for the faculty

Std. Deviation

For some of the courses/subjects I teach

Std. Deviation

For most of the courses/subjects I teach

Std. Deviation

For all of the courses/subjects I teach

Std. Deviation

Std. Deviation

4.3.4 Perception of Support

The survey also investigated perception of support and faculty desire to teach. In this regard, the participants were required to choose from a scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree in view of the statements that were provided. The statements focused on issues such as level of technical and administrative support offered, availability of infrastructure and technologies to support use of Blackboard, and extent of government support. The participants’ responses are presented in the table below (table #).

Table #: Perception of support and faculty desire to teach

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Agree nor Disagree

Strongly Agree

Std. Deviation

I feel there is adequate peer support to use Blackboard effectively

I feel there is adequate technical support to use Blackboard effectively

I feel there is adequate administrative support to use Blackboard effectively

I feel there is adequate governmental support to use blackboard effectively

The issue of support and the desire of faculty to use blackboard technology in their classes is one of the most important in determining applicability. The four elements of support in this case were government incentives, peer support, technical support, and administrative support from the institutions. The highest aspect of support for learning management system in the sample was the government because 27.5% of the respondents agreed about its presence, while 12.7 strongly agreed. The rating for government support had a mean of 3.32, SD= 0.979.

The second highest rated element was technical support from the universities. 36.2% of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that it was significantly provided to them. 36.2% disagreed while 27.7% were neutral on the issue. The average rating was 3.01, SD= 1.25. Administrative support was the third highest in terms of rating with peer support being considered the least available. The means for administrative and peer support are 2.96 and 2.8 respectively, and the standard deviations are 1.16 and 1.09 respectively.

4.4 Enablers and Barriers for Using Blackboard in Teaching

Overview

4.4.1 Enablers for Using Blackboard

In an open-ended survey question, the participants were asked to indicate some of the reasons why they use Blackboard for teaching and learning perspectives. This question was asked to learn more about the factors that influence use, and to examine the ways that Blackboard is used to address the question: To what extent, and in which ways do female academics use Blackboard. The question was framed as “What are some of the reasons you use Blackboard in your teaching?” A total of 81 participants responded to this question. Twenty-five (30.8 percent) of them indicated that they did not know how to use Blackboard which is similar/different/ to question 11 which identified the % participantsThe remaining 56 participants gave different reasons why they used Blackboard. . In the analysis of this question each response was coded into four broad areas and uploaded into a table (full responses can be seen in appendix A). These four areas were identified based on the perceived benefits of technology as noted in the literature review (see Section 2.#) and included: improving teaching, improving student learning, improving academic members’ working conditions, and other related reasons.

4.4.1.1 Improving teaching

In terms of reasons related to improving teaching, 24 participants (29.6 percent) felt they could differ the way they deliver learning to students, in particular, the affordances that blackboard offers. For instance, one participant noted that Blackboard has the potential for “changing the usual teaching methods to reach the output of a strong education and learning”. Others noted particular Blackboard features such as videos and quizzes etc. For example, as one female academic noted Blackboard

“helps in organizing the various aspects of the course by allowing me to post instructions on the conduction of the activities, and allowing online submission of requirements and establishing deadlines. Makes conducting of quizzes and exams easier, faster, and more organized”.

Other features that were identified include the possibility of embedding utilities such as PowerPoint, YouTube and classjump in teaching using Blackboard.

Indeed many of the female academics felt that Blackboard could be used in their courses. 40.6% and 23.2% of the participants respectively agreed and strongly agreed with the closed-ended statement that “I believe that Blackboard is appropriate for my courses/subjects” so it is not surprising that many of them noted the usefulness of Blackboardfor teaching purposes. The reasons for this is varied, for instance responses differed from the benefits of Blackboard from being able to “to post homework for students”, to “view lesson materials”, “to use additional educational materials such as YouTube and PowerPoint”, and “to use standardised exercises”.

Another teaching purpose noted by the female academics was being able to monitor students’ learning. For instance, one participant noted that Blackboard “Help in providing new and easy application evaluation strategies. The student and the teacher becomes aware of the level of progress or academic failure and therefore follow-up and propose solutions”. Another participant in the research pointed out the ease of communicating with students regarding their homework that is made possible by noting that “I post homework and work we need to do in class worksheets we chat in the chalkboard”. As well, the participants identified the fact that Blackboard enables them to assess student easily and to identify those who need extra coaching in certain areas based on the students’ performance in those areas. This is reflected in the response that Blackboard “Helps in conduction of standardized exercises. Allows item analysis of MCQ questions, enabling me to easily and quickly identify students who require extra training in certain topics”. These findings are related to point that in relation to the closed-ended questions, most (63.8 percent) of the participants felt that Blackboard was appropriate for teaching in their courses (Table 16). In particular, 40.6% of the participants agreed while 23.2% of the strongly agreed with the statement “I believe that Blackboard is appropriate for my courses/subjects”.

From the findings above, it is apparent that most participants who used Blackboard cited the ability to provide teaching and learning materials in different formats and delivery mode supported their course implementation. In particular, it provided different ways to interact with students via Blackboard features, monitor their learning and administer assessments as some of the ways Blackboard improves their teaching. This perceived usefulness of Blackboard may contribute to the uptake of LMS and could be a way to entice other academics to use LMS to support their course.

4.4.1.2 Improving Student learning

Of the 81 responses to this question, 12 (14.8%) of the responses were grouped into the category of improving student learning. As shown in table#(Participants’ attitude and opinions regarding Blackboard), 61.5% of the participants believed that adopting Blackboard in Saudi universities will encourage students to be more interested in learning. The reasons cited by the survey participants for using Blackboard were mostly based on the following themes: increasing access to learning materials and resources and facilitating more interactions and information exchanges between students.

In terms of increasing access to learning materials and resources, one participant noted that Blackboard makes it possible to “provide educational resources for students at any time, and to involve students in the learning process and make the student-centred”. Another response was that Blackboard “Allows the student the opportunity to go back and verify the information at any time”. As well, other participants in the research noted that Blackboard “provide more than one scientific material for students at same time and place” and that through the LMS, “students can keep scientific article that are discussed throughout the courses”. Another participant was of the view that Blackboard enables to students keep in touch with what is happening in class and access the educational materials provided by the tutor even if the student is absent from class. This is captured in the following statement: “If one of students absence, she will find all the lessons on Blackboard” (which ideally means that is one students is absent from a class, he or she will still be able to access the learning materials of the missed class if the learning institution uses the Blackboard system. All the opinions given above are based on the fact that through Blackboard, students can access learning materials from any place at any time, participate in group discussions and access materials even if they miss the physical classroom. However, as was noted in the literature review limited Internet infrastructure (see Section 2.# ) might hinder this access for some female students.

In regard to facilitating more interactions and exchanges between students, the participants in the research identified some of the student-related factors that make them use Blackboard. The responses along this line include Blackboard’s discussion forums which “support the students to exchange different views through discussions”. Other responses that are related to this statement include: Blackboard “Allows students the opportunity to exchange information and experiences”, the LMS “Support the students to each other and exchange different views through discussions in the Forum”, and it allows “More interaction opportunity for students. More opportunity to see students writing in English”. All these statements are corroborated by the finding based on the closed-ended questions in which more than 50 percent of the participants agreed or strongly agreed with the statement “I believe Blackboard offers students enough opportunities for interaction” (Table #: Participants’ attitudes and opinions regarding Blackboard).

From this account, it can be seen that most of the participants identified the convenience of accessing and sharing learning materials by students and the Blackboard features that enable interactions and information exchanges between students as the main reasons why they use the LMS.

4.4.1.3 Improving working for academic members

Approximately 41.9 percent of the responses for using Blackboard were related to improving academic staff members’ working conditions (see appendix A). An overview of these key findings includes:

  • Improved speed of delivering instruction: Some of the responses were that Blackboard facilitates “speed” (meaning that Blackboard enables faster delivery of teaching instruction). As well, some participants noted that Blackboard helps save time and effort, as shown in the following responses: Blackboard facilitates “Rapid and official communication with students…”, the LMS “Saves a lot of time – allows the student contact at any time”, Blackboard facilitates “Saving time and effort”, and it is “Fast and easy and available for students”.

  • Ease of use: Responses pertaining to ease of use of Blackboard included: “Ease of use to save time and effort and the accuracy of the collection of student work and achievement”, Easy to work and interact with students”, and “Ease of sending e-mails, download some threads lectures instead of hard copies and circulated among students”.

  • Better time management and accuracy of the system with regard to monitoring: One participant noted that Blackboard enables “Ease of use to save time and effort and the accuracy of the collection of student work and achievement”.

  • Better communication with students: It was noted by one participant in the research that Blackboard enables “Easy communication with the students”.

  • Better student participation which improves teaching: As noted by one of the participants, Blackboard enables “The active participation of students to enrich lectures outsourcing and articles monetary review”.

  • Making it easier to work with and interact with students: One participant hinted that Blackboard “Support(s) interaction between the students and the professor”.

  • Ease of sending learning materials to students: A participant in the research suggested that one of the benefits of Blackboard is “The ability to download heavy files that I can not lift my site” in addition sending “emails automatically [to students] allows them to communicate easily.

  • Ease of making announcements to students: A participant in the research noted that Blackboard “helps in organizing the various aspects of the course (by allowing me to post instructions on the conduction of the activities, and allowing online submission of requirements and establishing deadlines)”.

  • Ease of administering quizzes and monitoring them: For example, a participant in the research pointed out that Blackboard facilitates “announcement of grades in the future (to prepare online tests and lectures) the use of certain features (plagiarism checker).”

  • Ability to keep records of learning progress: It was noted that Blackboard “..keeps record of all teaching activities, texts, announcements, and updates. It helps keep everyone accountable, students and instructors alike”.

  • Saving time: The responses given along this line include Blackboard helps in “Saving time and effort” and that the LMS “Saves a lot of time”.

  • Making it easier to plan the teaching lessons: One of the participants in the research was of the view that Blackboard enables “planning the decision since the beginning of the academic year…”.

A common feature of these comments is the notion of “ease”. As highlighted in the previous chapter, perceived ease of use is a key indicator for adoption of technology. In these comments there is a perceived ease around making work or teaching and learning related activities work easier, faster and more flexible.

4.4.1.4 Other reasons

The other reasons that the participants can be grouped into two main TAM areas external and internal factors. The external factors include requirements of the university and student demand and more internal factors including the desire to use new technologies such as learning management systems, to keep up with modern teaching practices.

External Factors

University requirement: In regard to the use of technology being a requirement by universities, one of the participants’ responses was that they use Blackboard because it is a “mandatory requirement by the department”. Another response along this line was that the need to use Blackboard “became imposed from college”. However, there is some difference in the findings given that less than 50 percent of the participants felt that there is adequate administrative support towards the use of Blackboard (table #: Perception of support and faculty desire to teach). This is an indication that the universities involved are still not doing enough to support the use of Blackboard in spite of them requiring their faculty members to use the LMS.

Student demand: Usage of technology by students was also identified as a factor that promotes the use of Blackboard among members of faculty. For instance, one female academic noted that the “widespread use of the technology by students in this days” is one of the factors that are promoting the use of technology in her institution. This is supported by the point that based on the closed-ended responses, 60.2 percent of the participants agreed or strongly agreed with the statement that students will perceive the use of technology in teaching positively (45.7% of the participants agreed while 14.5% of them strongly agreed with the statement). See table 16.

Internal factors

Gender separation: Based on the closed ended responses, there is an indication that the participants in the research perceive Blackboard as an important technology due to the separation of gender in their institutions. In particular, 57 percent of the participants noted agreed or strongly agreed with the statement “I believe that due to gender separation in the Saudi higher education, Blackboard is a good teaching tool” (table 17). Specifically, 48.1% of the participants agreed while 8.9% of them strongly agreed with the aforementioned statement. Even then, there was no mention of gender or technology enabling more access for women in the open-ended responses.

4.4.2 Reasons for not using Blackboard teaching

An open-ended question was also used to collect the participants’ views on why they do not use Blackboard in their teaching activities. A question posed included: “What are some of the reasons you don’t use Blackboard in your teaching?”. The total number of participants who gave their answers to this question was 94. Out of this number, 13 participants indicated that they did not have a specific reason for not using Blackboard. The rest of the participants (81) gave various reasons for not using the LMS. These reasons were categorised into four groups as follows: institutional issues, technology-related issues, academic-related issues and student-related issues (full responses presented in table format in appendix B). The categorisation of the responses was based on the groups of factors identified in the literature review as challenges to the use of learning management systems in institutions of high learning (see Section 2.#).

4.4.2.1 Institutional issues

The main institutional factors (approximately 17.2 percent or 14 out of 81 responses) identified by the participants as the reasons why they do not use Blackboard include: lack of adequate training; lack of incentives to support the use of the learning management system, as well as lack of support and encouragement from the participants employer institutions. These reasons are explained briefly below.

Lack of adequate training: most participants indicated that lack of training was a major concern as they either have not received adequate training or have not been trained at all. Some of the participants’ statements around the reasons for not using Blackboard included: “I did not get adequate training”, “lack of training and support” and “haven’t got any training”. These findings are verified by thes finding from table #(Factors that promote participation in using Blackboard )where more than half of the participants (30.4% and 21.0%) disagreed with or were neither agree nor disagree respectively, to the statement that “I feel I have the necessary training to prepare me to teach using Blackboard”. This means that many of the members of faculty are either not trained or are not sure of their skills with respect to the use of Blackboard.

Lack of support and encouragement from the participants employer institutions: The support via incentives also featured in their response, for example: “the lack of support and encouragement by management”, “there is no encouragement of the university to use Blackboard. There are no mandatory courses on how to use”, and “There is no stimulation of the university to use Blackboard. There are no mandatory courses on how to use”. This coincides with the responses given in regard to the closed-ended questions (table #: Perception of support and faculty desire to teach).The responses given in regarding to the statement “I feel there is adequate administrative support to use Blackboard effectively”, 37.1% of the responded strongly disagreed or disagreed while 30.8% were neither agree nor disagree. Regarding to the statement “I feel there is adequate technical support to use Blackboard effectively”, there was the equal number of participants who agree or disagree (36.2%) with the statement. Combined, the findings indicate that the support and incentives that the participants receive from their universities may not be satisfactory.

Lack of incentives to support the use of Blackboard: The research one participant in the research identified “lack of incentives” as one of institutional factors that make her not to use Blackboard in teaching. This is comparable to the findings based on the closed-ended statements in which more than 40 percent of the participants did not agree with the statement that “I feel there are workload incentives if I use Blackboard” (table 16). In particular, 18.1 percent of the participants strongly disagreed with this statement while 29.7% of the disagreed with the statement. This implies that respective universities do not provide adequate incentives that would motivate academic staff to use blackboard in teaching.

        1. Technology-related issues

The technology-related issues that were identified by the participants include software problems, delayed technical support, difficulties in using the Blackboard system, non-functioning of some features of the LMS, lack of technical support, failure of the system in some instances, and lack of knowledge required to use the technology. These issues are addressed below.

  • Software problems, delayed technical support, and lack of technical support: Most of the participants in particular identified technical problems (network failure, difficulties in using the system, and failure of some functions of the system or the entire system) and lack of technical support as the reasons why they do not use Blackboard. For instance, the participants responded that “technical support delayed” and “no technical support for me or my students”.

  • Failure of the system in some instances, difficulties in using the Blackboard system, and non-functioning of some features of the LMS: the participants identified “device malfunctions”, “network problems”, “some technical complexities”, “technical malfunctions” and sudden crashing of the system as some of the factors that discourage the use of Blackboard.

  • Lack of knowledge required to use the technology: Some of the participants pointed out lack of knowledge in using some technical aspects of Blackboard as the reason why they do not use the LMS. For instance, one participant noted that “the program is complex and the many similarities and does not constitute any enthusiasm me to work on it”, As well, another participant in the research noted that “academic staff, unfortunately, at the University not be able to use Blackboard for lack of banner which links the names of students and courses with Blackboard”. Yet another response was that “students still find it hard to log in and participate due to technical difficulties”. This implies that there are some features of Blackboard which some of the members of faculty and students are unable to use effectively.

The general implication is that the ‘difficulties’ associated with using Blackboard, lack of technical support, and lack of knowledge of some features associated with using Blackboard makes some faculty members less enthusiastic to use the LMS. The point that some participants noted that Blackboard is complex or that they lack the knowledge to use some features of the LMS is shared in the closed-ended responses. In particular, in Table# (Participants’ attitudes and opinions regarding Blackboard) in response to the statement “I believe blackboard technology is too complicated for both the student and the faculty to be successful”, more than 40 percent of the participants disagreed with the statement (10.4% strongly disagreed while 34.1% disagreed) while only less than 20 percent of the participants agreed or strongly agreed with the statement. This implies that Blackboard has some features that many of the participants were not familiar with.

        1. Academic-related issues

In relation to academic-related issues, the reasons identified by the participants for not using Blackboard include lack of knowledge about Blackboard; lack of experience in using the system; the perception that Blackboard is complicated, burdensome and time-consuming; lack of adequate time to prepare teaching materials; the fact that some lessons require face-to-face interaction between the lecturer and the students; and the perception that teaching in class physically is better and more important than using Blackboard. These points are illustrated below.

  • Lack of knowledge about Blackboard and lack of experience in using the system: This was shown through some of the participants’ responses such as “lack of knowledge”, “lack of experience”, and “not enough knowledge” to use Blackboard. The same is supported by fining that about 30 percent of the participants disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement that “I have the knowledge I need to develop teaching and learning using Blackboard” (table 16).

  • Perception that Blackboard is complicated, burdensome and time-consuming; lack of adequate time to prepare teaching materials: Responses relating to this point include Blackboard “Increase the burden on the teacher at home”, “inability to use Blackboard perfectly and the fear of lack of success because I am busy”, “it takes time and effort” and “it can be time consuming sometimes”.

  • The fact that some lessons require face-to-face interaction between the lecturer and the students and the perception that teaching in class physically is better and more important than using Blackboard: The perception that the traditional classroom way of teaching is better or that face-to-face interaction between the lecturer and the students is necessary in some courses can be seen as some of the key reasons that make members of faculty to not use Blackboard. These findings above are corroborated by some of the findings reported in table# (Participants’ attitudes and opinions regarding Blackboard). Notably, as shown in table #, many participants did not believe that students learnt just as much in LMS as they do in the traditional classroom with 39.3% disagreeing and 8.1% strongly disagreeing with that statement that “I believe students tend to learn just as much in Blackboard environment as they do in the traditional classroom”. This is supported by several open-ended responses in which the participants seemed to indicate that the level of learning that is achieved through Blackboard is not the same as that which is achieved through the traditional classroom. Such responses include: “some courses need to be face to face because they need more explain”, “theoretical and practical teaching in the classroom is much better than Blackboard”, “my course does not need to Blackboard”, and “I believe case discussions in our specialty are best conducted in class”.

4.4.2.4 Student-related issues

Concerning student-related issues that hinder the use of Blackboard, the participants identified a number of factors. For instance, the participants identified concerns such as complacency among students with regard to the use Blackboard (including non-compliance with academic requirements and cheating).

In relation to student complacency, one response was that “some students complacency when a new program and create excuses of others in convincing non-compliance or delivery obligations or provide short-exams and became used as a means cheating among students for exams”. This means that students can take of advantage of the flexibility that is provided by Blackboard to engage in vices such as plagiarism or cheating. Other statements depicting students’ complacency or unwillingness to use Blackboard include “students do not open the Blackboard and use material there”, “unwillingness of students to use it”, and “not every student goes online and check Blackboard until I tell them”. These statements are comparable to the point that not very many participants agreed with the closed-ended statement that “I feel there is adequate student support to use Blackboard effectively” (table #: Possible barriers to the adoption of Blackboard). In fact, only less than 30 percent of the participants agreed with the aforementioned statement, more than 30 percent disagreed or strongly disagreed, while 35.9% were neither agree nor disagree in regard to the statement.

Other concerns are difficulties in using the LMS, lack of family support, lack of training, unwillingness to use Blackboard, lack of student interaction with lecturers, preference for the traditional classroom learning, and lack of adequate facilities and skills among students. Lack of student interaction with lecturers as caused by the use Blackboard, and preference for the traditional classroom learning, can be linked to two findings from the previous section. One is that there are situations in which face-to-face interaction is preferred in the course of teaching or learning. Another is that there are situations in which the course that students are undertaking is more suited to the use of the traditional classroom method of teaching.

4.4.3 Assisting Blackboard Use

The participants were asked an open-ended question on what they believed would help them to use Blackboard more in their teaching. The question was put forward as “What do you believe would assist you to use Blackboard more in your teaching?”. Eighty-eight participants gave their responses to this question. Nine (about 10.2 percent) of them indicated that they did not know what could help them to use Blackboard more. On the other hand, the remaining 79 participants (89.8 percent) gave different views in regard to what they think can help them to use Blackboard more in their work. The responses were grouped into four categories for ease of understanding them. The categories are institutional, technology-related, academic and student-related issues (full responses can be seen in appendix C). The factors were grouped into four various categories

4.4.3.1 Institutional factors

The institutional factors that the participants identified that could help them use Blackboard more are as follows: educating students about Blackboard; ensuring that each student’s data is linked to Blackboard via the banner system; providing training courses for students; ensuring that there is adequate infrastructure to serve the needs of students with regard to the system; educating students on the importance of Blackboard and how to use it; training members of faculty so that they can serve students well using the system; and allowing students more time to practise using the system. The emphasis that the participants placed on the need for training to use Blackboard suggests that many of the participants have not received adequate training that can enable them to use the technology effectively. This coincides with the finding that less than 50 percent of the participants reported to have trained on how to use Blackboard features and other technologies such as Chat Room, Discussion forum, and ListServs among others (table #: Blackboard technologies in which the participants have been trained). The findings are also supported by the figures presented in table # (Factors that promote participation in using Blackboard), in which 5.8% and 30.4% of the participants strongly disagreed and disagreed, respectively, with the statement that they believe they have the necessary training to prepare them to teach using Blackboard. In particular, most participants emphasised the need to train both students and academic members on how to use Blackboard, as shown through statements such as “educate students and faculty members about it (Blackboard)”. This is because it is through awareness on the importance of the system and how to use it that both students and staff can use it. This in turn, as noted by most participants, will encourage them to participate in using Blackboard.

        1. Technology-related Issues

In terms of technology-related issues, most of the participants noted that increasing the number of computer laboratories as well as other necessary technological infrastructure and providing technical support to facilitate the use of Blackboard would make them use the technology more.

Increasing the number of computer laboratories and other necessary technological infrastructure: This was noted through the participants’ responses such as “Increase the number of computer labs at the university for exams”, “Providing network facilities” and “provide equipped with online labs for students”.

Providing technical support: The responses are emphasised by the statements that were provided by the participants, such as “develop a system Blackboard in line with the User Requirements”, “provide technical support permanently”, “provide technicians in each college to respond to inquiries”, “provide equipped with online labs for students”, and “provide infrastructure, laboratories equipped”. The statements point to the notion that the participants’ universities either did not have adequate infrastructure or did not have adequate policies and support to facilitate the effective use of Blackboard. This is supported by the finding that more than 30% of the participants either disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement that “I feel the university has a clear Blackboard policy”, as shown in table # (Possible barriers to the adoption of Blackboard).The fact that many participants identified technical support as an issue that affects several aspects of learning from students to lecturers and to administrative matters also points to the policies that universities have toward the use of technology. Along this line, ensuring that technical support is provided when members of faculty need it would make the use of Blackboard easier and more accepted, which would make more academic staff to use the system even more. From table #(Perception of support and faculty desire to teach), it is not very clear whether or not the participants received adequate technical support towards the use of Blackboard. This is because in response to the statement “I feel there is adequate technical support to use Blackboard effectively”, 36.2 percent of the participants either disagreed or strongly disagreed, 27.7 percent of them were neither agree nor disagree to the statement, while 36.2 percent of the participant either agreed or strongly agreed. As it can be seen, the percentages of participants disagreeing with the statement and of those participants who agreed with the statement were equal.

4.4.3.3 Academic factors

Turning to academic issues, most of the participants were of the view that they can use Blackboard more if the system enables them to communicate with students at any time; if it allows functionalities such as quizzes and privacy; where distance education courses are involved; where there is full knowledge and familiarity with technology; if the technology facilitates interaction with students; and if the system facilitates improved usability and accessibility. The different reasons given by the participants as to why they would use Blackboard point to the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use the technology. That is, if the participants would find Blackboard to be relevant to their work or if they deem the technology to be making their work easier, they would use the technology more in their teaching work. For instance, some of the statements given by some participants, such as Blackboard is useful “when there is a distance education or training programs or distance courses”, when it helps “reduce the teaching load” and that the participants would use Blackboard “when I see Blackboard’s benefits” imply that Blackboard can be used more if it is perceived to be useful and relevant. The usefulness of the technology is further emphasised by the response that the participants would use Blackboard more when there is “improved usability and accessibility of the system”. These findings are reinforced by some aspects of the results pertaining to the closed-ended questions. For instance, in table #( Participants’ attitude and opinions regarding Blackboard), over 60 percent of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed with the statement that “I believe adopting Blackboard in Saudi universities will improve student learning” (47.4% agreed while 14.1% strongly agreed). Also, 48.1% and 8.9% of the participants agreed and strongly agreed, respectively, with the statement “I believe that due to gender separation in the Saudi higher education, Blackboard is a good teaching tool” (table #: Participants’ attitude and opinions regarding Blackboard). This means that most of the participants were of the view that the use of Blackboard is relevant in situations such as those involving gender separation.

4.4.3.4 Student-related issues

Some of the survey participants noted that having students with knowledge on how to use Blackboard would encourage them to use the system more. Along the same line, some participants cited the following issues:

Student acceptance of Blackboard: It was noted that “students acceptance” of Blackboard can increase the usage of the LMS

Ability of students to interact with the system: One of the research participants noted that there is need for “sufficient knowledge for students to know how to use it” (Blackboard) and “students having knowledge in using it (Blackboard). This means that having students who are adept at using technologies such as Blackboard is likely to motivate members of faculty to use the technology. Support for this notion can be seen from table # (Participants’ attitudes and opinions regarding Blackboard), where more than 50 percent of the participants either agreed or strongly agreed with the statement “I believe adopting Blackboard in Saudi universities will encourage students to be more interested in learning”. What this implies is that when universities in Saudi Arabia adopt the use of Blackboard, then more students will be motivated to use the system, and consequently, more members of faculty will be encouraged to use Blackboard more.

Family support for students to use Blackboard: Family support for students to use Blackboard such was indicated through the following response “Families should understand the importance of giving their daughters the time and space to use modern technology”.

Appendix A: Reasons for using Blackboard(81 participants)

Improve Teaching(24 responses)

Improve Student Learning(12 responses)

Improve working (34 responses)

Other(20 responses)

  • Display video

  • Attract the attention of the students.

  • Changing the usual teaching methods to reach the output of a strong education and learning.

  • Help in providing new and easy application evaluation strategies. The student and the teacher becomes aware of the level of progress or academic failure and therefore follow-up and propose solutions.

  • provide scientific material interactively.

  • ease to use quizzes through it.

  • Attract the attention of the students.

  • Interaction.

  • Interactive way with the students.

  • to clarify points of scientific material to be taught either draw a lesson demonstration linking with rest of the items, to display section contributes to the clarification or explanation of the scientific material to be taught.

  • To view the lesson material.

  • the best ways to interact with the students.

  • use powerpoint, youtube, classjump in teaching.

  • Easier in dealing with students.

  • improve the quality of teaching.

  • Sourcing and lectures.

  • the interaction with the student.

  • Teach some courses theory.

  • Create a new teaching technique different from traditional teaching atmosphere.

  • I post homework and work we need to do in class worksheets we chat in the chalkboard.

  • Helps in conduction of standardized exercises. Allows item analysis of MCQ questions, enabling me to easily and quickly identify students who require extra training in certain topics.

  • Interaction with students.

  • the use of technology to achieve the interaction between teacher and students and between students with each other.

  • effective in the diversity of assessment tools

  • Allows the student the opportunity to go back and verify the information at any time. Allows students the opportunity to exchange information and experiences.

  • to prepare the student in the field of self-learning skills. teach students responsibility in the delivery of assignments.

  • delivery of the full educational materials for students.

  • Support the students to each other and exchange different views through discussions in the Forum.

  • More interaction opportunity for students. More opportunity to see students writing in English.

  • provide educational resources for students at any time, and to involve students in the learning process and make the student-centered.

  • students can keep scientific article that are discussed throughout the courses.

  • provide more than one scientific material for students at same time and place.

  • My students are very pleased with the organization and clarity in the course.

  • If one of students absence, she will find all the lessons on Blackboard.

  • connects Article students outside the classroom.

  • To facilitate and advance learning.

  1. Ease of use to save time and effort and the accuracy of the collection of student work and achievement.

  2. to facilitate communication with students by emails.

  3. Facilitate communication with students process. Adjusts the delivery requirements at a specific time.

  4. Rapid and official communication with students. saving time and effort in the preparation of the scientific material.

  5. Ease of communication.

  6. Save time.

  7. The active participation of students to enrich lectures outsourcing and articles monetary review. Provide time for discussion using blackboard.

  8. More control of deadlines on assignments. More time to discuss issues the traditional classroom environment and time cannot provide.

  9. Easy to work and interact with students.

  10. communicate.

  11. Facilitate communication with the students. It gives flexibility in teaching.

  12. Fast and easy and available for students.

  13. Support interaction between the students and the professor.

  14. The ability to download heavy files that I can not lift my site. the presence of the students and getting out emails automatically allows them to communicate easily.

  15. announcement of grades in the future (to prepare online tests and lectures) the use of certain features (plagiarism checker).

  16. Saving time and effort.

  17. Easy communication with the students.

  18. Time-saving, economic.

  19. I can update my students about lesson.

  20. Save the time and effort.

  21. Upload some material Upload syllabus Announcements to students.

  22. helps in organizing the various aspects of the course (by allowing me to post instructions on the conduction of the activities, and allowing online submission of requirements and establishing deadlines). Makes conduction of quizzes and exams easier, faster, and more organized.

  23. It keeps record of all teaching activities, texts, announcements, and updates. It helps keep everyone accountable, students and instructors alike.

  24. Planning the decision since the beginning of the academic year. punctuality and discipline.

  25. Ease of sending e-mails, download some threads lectures instead of hard copies and circulated among students.

  26. Easier for the professor and students communicate in a formal way.

  27. Able a discussion, and the use of short tests that are corrected automatically, and the participation of scheduled files for female students, and to inform the students on their assessments and continuously updated, send an e-mail group or the use of declarations and notification messages to remind students and notice to delivery dates and tests and all this makes it easier for a professor of communication with the students.

  28. effective tools it provides.

  29. Convenient asynchronous learning, students and instructors are available beyond work hours, more interactive, everything is documented, helps save paper, ability to copy courses from one semester to another.

  30. increase student interaction, reduce the administrative burden of the correct receipt of the duties and ease of communication with students.

  31. communication with students.

  32. saves a lot of time — allows the student contact at any time.

  33. Ease of communication and access to information.

  1. Required from the university.

  • New and effective technique, also, keep up with the technical evolution.

  • My the field.

  • The tremendous developments in education technology.

  • Trends Princess Nourah University in use.

  • The desire to keep pace with modernization and development.

  • Remember everyone’s rights and transparency.

  • widespread use of the technology by students in this days.

  • I love everything that has to do with technology.

  • It’s modern learning strategies and technical environment around us and which has become a necessary part of education.

  • When absent from the lecture.

  • compatible with the possibilities of these days.

  • I think it is important to use new technology in teaching.

  • more privacy than public blogs.

  • keep up with everything new in the field of Education Technology.

  • It became imposed from college.

  • use technology is more important for staff and students.

  • Use of Technology.

  • Keep up with technology.

  • Mandatory requirement by the department.

Appendix BReasons for not using Blackboard teaching(81 participants)

Institutional issues( 14 responses)

Technology issues(30 responses)

Academic issues(46 responses)

Student issues(16 responses)

  1. I did not get adequate training.

  2. Lack of incentives.

  3. Lack of training courses.

  4. the lack of support and encouragement by management.

  5. There is no encouragement of the university to use Blackboard. There is no mandatory courses on how to use.

  6. Lack of sufficient labs to prepare students.

  7. No training.

  8. non-training faculty and students.

  9. no training courses.

  10. I have not be trained.

  11. Not enough training.

  12. Not activated yet in my department.

  13. lack of training and support.

  14. haven’t got any training.

  1. some software problems.

  2. technical support delayed.

  3. the difficulty of use.

  4. weakness of the system where the frequency of complaints from academics that many of the features on the system do not work.

  5. Weak technical support.

  6. no technical support for me or my students.

  7. I am forced to lift educational materials for each class separately even if they were the same materials and the same instruction Article, So I opened a blog article and lift all the materials there.

  8. software problems.

  9. technical support is not available.

  10. technical malfunctions.

  11. Crash sudden.

  12. lack of technical support.

  13. technical problems.

  14. Students still find it hard to log in and participate due to technical difiiculties. not enough technical support.

  15. Academic staff, unfortunately, at the Princess Noura university not be able to use Blackboard for lack of banner which links the names of students and courses with Blackboard.

  16. The program is complex and the many similarities and does not constitute any enthusiasm me to work on it.

  17. Technical problems.

  18. The Internet and technical support.

  19. Device malfunctions.

  20. Technical issues.

  21. Technical and network problems.

  22. Technical problems.

  23. Lack of technical support.

  24. Problems with network connection.

  25. frequent technical problems.

  26. Technical problems.

  27. lack of technical support.

  28. technical problems.

  29. network problems.

  30. Some technical complexities.

  1. Needs to practice and continuing education.

  2. Perhaps the difficulty of learning.

  3. The nature of the material that I teach are based on practical training and the need to meet the students.

  4. Staff’s timing is closely monitored. I think Blackboard in this case is an additional burden on faculty members as they are required to teach almost double the time required for each course.

  5. Lack of knowledge.

  6. lack of experience.

  7. increase effort on faculty members by using both the traditional way of teaching and Blackboard system and.

  8. Not enough time to prepare eveything in advance and followup with students.

  9. Although I took a course in it, but I still did not know many details.

  10. Increase the burden on the teacher at home.

  11. Some Courses need to be face to face because they need more explain.

  12. Theoretical and practical teaching in the classroom is much better than Blackboard.

  13. Academics experience may limit instruction in the use of Blackboard.

  14. Inability to use Blackboard perfectly and the fear of lack of success because I am busy.

  15. The complexity of the establishment of lectures and assignments and corrected.

  16. Lack of knowledge.

  17. using blackboard in my courses may add more teaching load.

  18. the effort and the time required to prepare the scheduled.

  19. Lack of time.

  20. require time.

  21. I do not have techniqal skills to use it.

  22. Difficulty of using some features like quizzes and evaluations. Having each section of the same course separately.

  23. Not being able to complete a full training.

  24. Personal interactions with the teacher are a must important.

  25. Meeting students in class and showing them the learning materials in person is more effective.

  26. lack of human interaction and to identify the personalities.

  27. Lack of enough experience.

  28. I do not know what it is.

  29. I don’t need it in subjects which I teach.

  30. Not enough knowledge.

  31. I believe case discussions in our specialty are best conducted in class.

  32. I use alternative modes of communication with my students (e.g. project-based systems development using computing platforms).

  33. It takes time and effort.

  34. It need time.

  35. The pressure of work and the large number of courses, A large number of teaching hours and the large burden of administrative work.

  36. Need time.

  37. Time is needed to follow up on the responses of students and their participation and take down content, questions and management estimates.

  38. it can be time consuming sometimes.

  39. A lack of time and the large number of courses and number of students.

  40. Many responsibilities and the large number of students.

  41. No knowledge and I do not have time.

  42. My course does not need to black board , because it is light course «medical terminology».

  43. Lack of knowledge.

  44. I feel I do not have the competency to use it properly.

  45. options very complex and many, and all materials related to my courses present on the Personal site provided by the university.

  46. Complexities.

  1. some students complacency when a new program and create excuses of others in convincing non-compliance or delivery obligations or provide short-exams and became used as a means cheating among students for exams.

  2. difficulties for students (such as difficulties in contacting or provide devices to have).

  3. lack of Internet availability at some of them and the lack of time with others.

  4. Students do not open the Blackboard and use material there.

  5. some families still look at it as a waste of time and do not provide support for their daughters.

  6. I use other technological means to communicate with my students.

  7. Online network not available for students easily.

  8. I think students need training.

  9. unwillingness of students to use it.

  10. lack of interaction of students in the classes.

  11. Non-students interaction with Blackboard.

  12. The lack of interaction of students.

  13. Students does not accept the Blackboard and they prefer the traditional method.

  14. Not every students go online and check blackboard until I tell them.

  15. Some student lack of use of computer skills. Student unwillingness of this way of teaching.

  16. students are forced Login to interact, which may not suit the student time.

Apendix C:Things that assist to use Blackboard more teaching (79 participants)

Institutional(36 responses)

Technology(19 responses)

Academic(27 responses)

Student(11 responses)

  1. Eligible training course.

  2. training courses.

  3. Link upgrade. And linking differentiation between applicants to attend conferences.

  4. educate students and faculty members about it.

  5. Ensure student data is linked in Blackboard via banner system.

  6. Adopted by the university. Members and students training to use it. And follow-up training.

  7. Provide training courses.

  8. Found on the courses of previous similar experiments was activated Blackboard where and how the impact and interaction of the students.

  9. The existence of appropriate infrastructure. Force academics to use blackboard.

  10. Increase the number of training courses.

  11. University should provide adequate labs and regular maintenance.

  12. Educate the students of the importance of Blackboard and explain it to them. encourage faculty members to use Blackboard and incentives for those who commit it.

  13. Simplifying the tools and knowledge of the differences between them feel as similar and frequent closer to programming them into a program that everyone can use it.

  14. Providing courses on how to use it regularly.

  15. Encourage member faculty to use Blackboard.

  16. Training courses.

  17. Define the blackboard for academics and make training courses in a more organized.

  18. having enough training.

  19. Training.

  20. Sensitize academic members and students of the importance of use blackboard.

  21. financial incentives.

  22. Providing adequate training for staff and students as well.

  23. training and educational design skills that are consistent with the objectives of policy.

  24. Facilitate the use of technology.

  25. More workshops & protect confidentiality.

  26. More hands-on workshops.

  27. More training for both the students and the instructors.

  28. Educate students about what Blackboard is, hold workshops for faculty members individually each member separately.

  29. A good training

  30. Training Courses and encourage academics to attend them.

  31. More training and instructions.

  32. educate how to use it and what its benefits. Also, establish workshops regually.

  33. more training.

  34. I hope academics are forced to use blackboard by the university policy , so lecturers would be ready to teach using it without any obstacles.

  35. Educat both me and my students how to deal with such programmes.

  36. training in the use of Blackboard for students and faculty members and development.

  1. Increase the number of computer labs at the university for exams.

  2. Find technical support required.

  3. Create a supportive technique.

  4. Quick technical support.

  5. The availability of technical support.

  6. Develop a system Blackboard in line with the User Requirements.

  7. Solve technical problems and administrative support continuousl.

  8. Strong technical support.

  9. technical support.

  10. Technical support.

  11. Quality of the Internet and good speed and its availability for teacher and student.

  12. Provide technical support permanently.

  13. Provide technicians in each college to respond to inquiries.

  14. Technical support.

  15. Providing network facilities.

  16. Provide equipped with online labs for students.

  17. Good background in technology and its use in teaching.

  18. Provide infrastructure, laboratories equipped.

  19. Provide technical support.

  1. Communicate with students at any time.

  2. Facilitate the teaching process — change the types of teaching — to facilitate communication with the students — keep abreast of technical developments.

  3. Communicate with students. Grades inclusion which ensures privacy.

  4. Quizzes and assignments.

  5. Instructors should motivate students to use it more often.

  6. When there is a distance education or training programs or distance courses.

  7. Force academics to use it.

  8. Continuous encouragement and the desire of students.

  9. Full knowledge and familiarity with technology.

  10. provide time for use it and increase educational quality.

  11. Habituation (Getting used to).

  12. allocation of time and incentives to prepare scheduled.

  13. Reduce the teaching load.

  14. Easiness of interaction with students.

  15. Knowing how it will add to my current teaching methodology.

  16. Discussions with students.

  17. Have a good skills to use Blackboard.

  18. The nature of the courses.

  19. Developing the educational process and change from the routine.

  20. when classes are cancelled or in case of students who have a valid excuse for being absent and do not wish to miss «class».

  21. uploading courses and submit assignments.

  22. Do not give academics member any administrative work, and should reduce of teaching hours.

  23. When I see Blackboard’s benefits.

  24. Smaller numbers of students and lower teaching loads and administrative responsibilities.

  25. Improved usability and accessibility of the system.

  26. Taking courses or workshops.

  27. The nature of the courses and number of students.

  1. sufficient knowledge for students to know how to use it.

  2. The large number of students.

  3. Student interaction.

  4. Families should understand the importance of giving their daughters the time and space to use modern technology.

  5. Connections with Students.

  6. The quality of students use.

  7. Student enthusiasm.

  8. Make it as a reference for student only.

  9. The reaction catalyzed from students.

  10. students acceptance.

  11. Students having knowledge in using it.