Construction Site Management Assignment

10Construction Site Management

Construction Site Management

Part 1: Level 3 Work breakdown structure

In the construction of abutment, the level 3 activities mainly involve the major tasks that have to be undertaken (Blake, 2013). In the work breakdown structure, the activities at level 3 are divided into the major components as well as their individual disciplines. The table below is the work breakdown structure for the level 3 activities during the construction of the abutment located on the eastern side of the bridge.

Best-case estimate

Probable-case estimate

Worst-case estimate


Laying of drains behind the abutment

Laying of small pipes

Developing of granular surroundings

Developing drainage ditches

Placing and compacting the granular fill

Placing and compacting the granular fill behind the abutment

Placing and compacting the granular fill to road formation level

Preparation of seating for the bridge beams

Levelling and marking of areas for fitting the beam

Preparation of the work areas in readiness to fit the beams

  1. Excavation and preparation of footing

Construction Site Management AssignmentConstruction Site Management Assignment 1

B. Pour footing

E. Traffic control

Construction Site Management Assignment 2Construction Site Management Assignment 3

C. prepare and pour walls

D. Backfill behind abutment

Construction Site Management Assignment 4

F. precast and offload store

Construction Site Management Assignment 5

In the network diagram, the excavation and preparation of the footing is the first activity. None of the other activities can be carried out before the excavation and preparation of the footing is carried out. In a network diagram, the activity that needs to be carried out first may form part of the critical path (Blake, 2013). It is expected that the process that the excavation and preparation of the footing is to last for a period of five days. One of the constraints is that the Reid Highway traffic cannot be interrupted by construction tasks. However, due to the nature of the activities that needs to be carried, the traffic has to be controlled. The control of traffic is important when carrying out some of the activities. The control of traffic has to be effective in order to avoid any inconveniences during the process. Pouring the concrete can be carried out after the excavation and preparation of the footing. This activity cannot be carried out before the excavation and preparation of the footing. However, it can be carried out without stopping the traffic as all the activities has to go on without interrupting the traffic. The preparation and pouring of the walls is the next step that needs to be carried out after the footing has been completed. During the construction process, it is important to ensure that a strong foundation is built before the other structures are put in place (Vesilind, Peirce & Weiner, 2013). Preparation and pouring of the walls is an activity in the critical path.

The process of preparing and pouring the wall is one of the most crucial during the project as it will last for a period of 15 days. Any delays during the process may create a lot of delays to the whole project. A delay of any activity in the critical path of the network diagram has negative effects on the whole project (Dėjus & Antuchevičienė, 2013). The timeline cannot be met when there is a delay in the critical path. Most of the activities in task 2 have to be carried out individually. As a critical activity, the time required for preparation and pouring of the concretes cannot be reduced. This therefore means that the activities have to be completed within the required timeline in order to avoid any delays. Backfilling behind the abutment is a process that needs to be carried out within a period of 3 days. In the network diagram, the activity is not in the critical path. This means that any delays in terms of filling backfilling behind the abutment will not have much negative effects on the whole project. This activity is also the last before the precast and off load store. Activities in the non critical paths can be adjusted in order to avoid delaying the whole project (Fortune, et al, 2011). The last activity in the network diagram is the preparation of the precast and offload store. This is a step aimed at preparing for the placement of the precast beam together with the actual activity. This activity is vital during the project as it determines the quality of the bridge.

Constrains are during the project have the ability of causing delays and impacting negatively on the ability to minimize the construction time. A total of twenty precast beams are required for the bridge. On working days, only 5 beams can be lifted. This means that the task has to be carried out within 4 days. This is a critical activity and any delays have negative effects on the whole project. In order to ensure that the construction time is minimized and time efficiency is attained, the activities in the non critical path is usually adjusted (Fortune, et al, 2011). This means that more personnel can be recruited to carry out the traffic control and backfill behind the abutment. Reducing the time allocated for the non critical activities ensures that more time is available for the activities in the critical path. Other constraint that may affect the activities in the critical path includes the use of conventional shutters for the pier and abutments. A single set of formwork and shutters for the footing, piers and abutment also impacts negatively on the activities in the critical path. To counter such constrains, the project must enhance the use of machinery. The use of machines is vital in ensuring that activities are carried out within a short period of time. Adequate human resources are also required in order to ensure efficiency in the management of the activities in the critical path (Vesilind, Peirce & Weiner, 2013). Wastage of resources including the materials should be avoided during the project. Delays in the critical path activities also increase on the cost of the project.

What are the tasks involved?

What are the hazards and risk?

What are the control measures?

Excavate and prep. footings

Environmental pollution through the emission of dust and noise from the heavy machinery.

Risk of injuries to the personnel by the heavy machinery during the process.

Equipment failure during the excavation process leading to delays.

Delays in the completion of the activities.

Using modern equipment that are not too noisy and pouring water on the surface to reduce the amount of dust generated (Vesilind, Peirce & Weiner, 2013).

Clearly marking the site and training the personnel on the safety measures.

Restricting access to the site by any unauthorized personnel.

Proper use of personal protective equipment by the personnel.

Ensuring that all the equipment are inspected and well maintained before use.

Strict adherence to the set schedule and working for extra hours to cover up for any delays.

Pour footings

Spilling of concrete in areas not required.

Wastage of concrete.

Delays in the process due to lack of adequate equipment.

Effective machines should be utilized during the process of pouring concrete.

The concrete mix specified in the design should be used (Fortune, et al, 2011).

Adequate resources should be allocated to the process.

Prepare and pour walls

Injuries to the personnel through prolonged bending during the pouring pumping and vibrating of concrete.

Irritation of the eyes, nose, throat and upper respiratory system due to exposure to cement dust.

Slips, trips and falls due to inadequate safety guards on equipment.

Environmental pollution due dust and noise.

Avoid twisting and awkward postures when working.

Use of machinery when lifting the heavy loads and ensuring that the area is not slippery (Fortune, et al, 2011).

Wearing of personal protective equipment such as the respirator to avoid inhaling the cement dust.

Wearing goggles and gloves to avoid coming into contact with the cement dust.

Ensuring that the guards are in place in order to protect the workers.

The workers should wear helmets and provided with adequate information about the areas with a risk of falls.

Establishing proper procedures related to working in heights and confined areas.

Following the environmental protection guidelines related to the construction process.

Backfill behind abutment

Back pain and injuries to the personnel due to prolonged bending and lifting.

Interference with the adjustment structures including the abutment (Fortune, et al, 2011).

Irritation to the personnel due to the dust generated.

Failure of the equipment during the backfilling process.

Failure to obtain adequate material and gradient during the backfilling process.

The personnel should avoid lifting heavy loads and machinery should be used for such activities.

Special equipment and expertise should be used to avoid any interference with the abutment.

Personnel should wear personal protective equipment when carrying out the activity.

Proper planning for the materials and maintenance of equipment.

Backfilling materials can be brought from other areas in advance.

Traffic Control

Traffic accidents at the site due to lack of proper control activities.

Failure of the road users to follow all the instructions provided to them during the control.

Traffic jams as a result of the activities at the site.

Lack of proper coordination with other stakeholders and authorities.

Inconveniences to the road users due to the control process.

Involvement of well trained personnel with experience in traffic control.

Development of adequate and detailed signage to aid the traffic control process.

Provision of adequate information in advance to the stakeholders including the road users.

Consultations with all the relevant stakeholders and authorities before the start of the works (Dėjus & Antuchevičienė, 2013).

Laying of drains behind the abutment

Causing damages to the abutment during the process (Dėjus & Antuchevičienė, 2013).

Inability of the drains to function effectively as required.

Wrong dimension in terms of the pipe sizes.

Lack of adequate space to meet the drainage needs.

Lack of adequate service provision for the drainage system.

Proper implementation of the design plan in relation to the drainage system.

Involvement of experts in the process of developing the drainage system.

Proper calculation and establishment of the drainage needs.

Placing and compacting the granular fill

Loud noise that may affect the personnel during the process.

Back pain and injuries to the personnel due to prolonged bending and lifting.

Delays due to equipment failure during the process.

Physical injuries to the employees due to the use of machinery.

Use of modern machines and equipment with minimal noise.

All the heavy loads should be lifted using a machine including the forklift.

All the equipment must be well maintained and inspected before the activity.

Involving the skilled knowledgeable personnel in the activity (Dėjus & Antuchevičienė, 2013).

Preparation of seating for the bridge beams

Poor measurements and marking of the position of the beams (Dėjus & Antuchevičienė, 2013).

Lack of adequate personnel to carry out the activities within the required timeline.

Lack of adequate resources to carry out the activity.

Involvement of experts during the preparation process and implementation of the activities.

Availing the required equipment in advance.

Proper planning of the activities before the implementation process.

Precast offload and store

Delays in the process due to the equipment constraints.

Injuries to the personnel due t the lifting process.

Equipment failure leading to delays.

Improper placing of the beams leading to delays.

Accidents due to fall of materials at the road below.

Inability to place the required number of beams within the required time leading to delays.

Ensuring that well functioning and operational equipment is brought to the site in advance.

All the personnel involved in the process must be trained on safety issues and should be provided with adequate personal protective equipment (Dėjus & Antuchevičienė, 2013).

All the equipment must be well secured to avoid any fall.

Recruiting more personnel and use of effective equipment to avoid delays.


Blake, L.S., (2013). Civil engineer’s reference book. London: Elsevier.

Dėjus, T. & Antuchevičienė, J. (2013). Assessment of health and safety solutions at a construction site. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 19(5), pp.728-737.

Vesilind, P.A., Peirce, J.J. & Weiner, R.F., (2013). Environmental engineering. Butterworth- Heinemann.

Fortune, J. et al. (2011). Looking again at current practice in project management. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 4(4), 553-572.