Conclusion and Presentation 4 Essay Example

Unit Title: Рrоjесt Dеsign, Imрlеmеntаtiоn and Еvаluаtiоn

Unit Number: 3.

Qualification: Pearson Level 4/5 — HNC/HND Engineering.

Assignment Title: Formulating a Movable Winch

Assignment No: 1.

Date: ————

Contents

Contents:

Summary:

Introduction:

Report and Analysis:

Discussion:

Conclusion:

References:

A lathe chuck lift is simply a mechanical component designed in such a way that it can raise or lower the chuck from its place on the lathe during the maintenance and servicing of the machine. The lathe chuck is a heavy machine part of the lathe and it is not easily held by hand thus the need for the lift to help in carrying out the process. The formulation of the project includes both fabrication and machining of the different parts of lift. The formulated designs are shown in every step of the design. Various tests were done on the design and its results outlined.

In this assignment, a detailed procedure, report and various testing done on the design has clearly been outlined.

  1. INTRODUCTION

Having been the engineering workshop for the engineering practical, I noted that the technician has problems in lifting most of the small weights while servicing the workshop machineries. With more concern on the lathe chuck head among other heavy parts of the lathe that require regular checking, maintenance and servicing, I discovered the need to come up with a design that will help in the lifting and lowering of the weights. After several research and consultations from the books, the internet and technicians, I thought of formulating a design that looks like a fork lift, small in size, a design that occupies less than 2 meters cubic volume.

The design should be movable, stable enough to lift and lower loads of up to 200Kgs at a time. The design should combine the electrical, mechanical among other mechanism efficiently to make work easier during its application. In order to come up with the best and most efficient design, a group of three students was formed to brainstorm and implement the idea.

The three individuals had to come up with a design of the idea independently and the best of the three designs would be passed for implementation. Basing on various engineering principles on efficiency and effectiveness, design 2 was chosen for implementation.

The design comprises of

  • A strong base to maintain the design upright

  • A lifting hook and winch to act as the lift

  • Strong bars to hold lift

  • Connecting limb to connect the lever to the winch

  • A lever to necessitate the lifting and lowering of the lift

  • Wheels to necessitate the movement of the design around the workshop

  • A motor and source of power ‘to operate the lift

  • A pulley system to allow lifting process

The design was specifically designed to help in the lifting of the lathe parts and more specifically the chuck hence the name ‘Lathe chuck lift’.

The lathe chuck lift is one of the heaviest part of the lathe machine that require regular from the lathe during servicing of the lathe hence the need to develop and formulate a lift to help the lathe operate undertake his operations. The lathe chuck lift works under two unique mechanisms of lifting the load from its place and to prevent the load from falling which may cause further damages. Any chances of free-fall should be avoided and personal lifts of which are part of the root plan should only be conducted in the line of visibility (Thorley, 1997).

  1. REPORT AND ANALYSIS

Procedure of designing the lathe chuck lift

Designing the base of the lift

An iron bar was cut into four equal pieces and the pieces were shaped into a wheel using the lathe machine. After the four pieces are cut, they are clamped on the lathe and faced in right angles. Tapering is then done to give the wheels a desired shape.

The wheels are then drilled a hole of diameter using the lathe machine in a process known as drilling. This was done by feeding. While preparing the wheels, you must ensure that you are using the recommended cutting speed, the feed and cutting depth. This helps to prevent mishaps and mishandling during the process of operation. The pieces must be firmly clamped on the lathe for safety.

Conclusion and Presentation 4

Conclusion and Presentation 4 1

The mounting plate is formulated by cutting a rectangular block 2 meters by 2 meters by use of a grinder. 4 holes are then marked on the plate using a scriber to erect the lift and drilled on the lathe machine. Knurling is done by rotating the work piece on the tool holder until the rollers have achieved the required pattern, the knurls prevents the lift base from sliding on the floor by giving it a grip with the ground. The scriber is used to mark a length of 2 meters on the bar provided. Repeat the procedure for the second bar. The grinder is used to cut the marked pieces safely leaving an allowance of 2 centimeter on every.

The iron bars were welded are shown in below. The base of the lift was ensured to be of the required size to easily get under the bed of the lathe machine without any complications. The base is then assembled by welding the angle lines with the mounting plate together as shown below.

Conclusion and Presentation 4 2

Wheel locks were efficiently fitted to the wheels.

Four bar rods of length 1 meter each were bolted to the base with bolts and nuts using the 17 size open spanners. The edges of the bars were filed to get rid of the sharp edges and make the design safe for use. At the 1 meter height our, the lever was fitted by welding the pivot to the bars.

Designing the lever

To design the lever you first start by drawing a free body diagram of the various forces acting on the lever. While R is the reaction force at the fulcrum pin, the summation of all vertical forces equals to zero

Conclusion and Presentation 4 3

After determining the forces, the dimensions of the perpendicular and the cross-section are then determined. The lever is then made of from the available materials fitting it to the stand.

Designing the winch

The winch is made from the available materials in the workshop. The winch machined from the lathe to form a groove is then connected to the lever using the connecting bars provided by welding. A hook was then designed by folding an iron rod of 8mm diameter to act as the hook. A wire cable of 30 cm was then cut and used to connect the winch to the hook (Hongyu and Ziyi, 2011).

Connecting the Motor.

A 24 DC motor was installed at the base of the lift to help in the operation of the pulleys. Two wire cables of 2.5mm were used to connect the motor to the power source. A dip switch was then fixed and connected to the motor to switch the motor on when in use and off when not in use.

Welding the various joints

Welding may not effective if the right welding procedures are not followed. Before every welding practice, the welding materials were gathered including the electrode holder, the welding machine, the ground and ground clamp and lead, electrodes. The joints were then fixed firmly for the welding to start. One should be in the safety gears. The welding machine was set to the required amperage around 90-120amps. However the amperage was adjusted with the depth of welding. A chipping hammer was used to remove the slag. After the first line of welding, another lining was added to increase the strength of the design. The welds were then ground using the grinder with a grinding disk to maintain a smooth surface.

After the fabrication, fitting and assembling the lathe chuck lift, it should be painted and marked with the necessarily information for safety purposes. The design should be stable, strong and efficient enough to lift the chuck. To avoid injuries or accidents during the work, the designed lift should be positioned at the appropriate place.

Conclusion and Presentation 4 4

Conclusion and Presentation 4 5

The lathe machine is one of the most critical machines in the workshop. The machine is used to formulate the desired shapes on various material pieces. The lathe machine rotates operates by rotating the pieces on the axis to achieve various operations like knurling, cutting, facing, deformation among others. In every lathe machine, the chuck head plays an active role of holding the work piece. The involved in regular adjustments to fit the different shapes of the work piece and the operations needed. It is thus opened regularly for servicing and maintenance and hence the need for a lift to carry their weight.

Different parts of the lift are designated to various task as described below

The base forms the basic resting point of the whole design. It also has wheels to allow movement of the chuck lift from one point to another. The base is connected to the levers, the pulleys and the winch.

Engineers have for a very long time used the pulley as their first machine of choice during the lifting of weighty objects over a short distance in a vertical path. The pulley has circular grooves that guides the movement of the rope as it transmits power (Bhandari, 2010).

The lever comprises of a stiff structure rotating on a fixed point known as the fulcrum in its course of transferring the force. The lever produces force F and the effort required to produce the force P. F is also called the load. The lever has a perpendicular distance where the force acts from the fulcrum known as the arm. The l1 and the l2 are the arm. Moments of forces on the pivot

Are given by:

F X l2 =P X l1

The load to effort ratio on the lever is known as the fever mechanical advantage while that of the effort to the load is known as the leverage. The leverage is thus equal to the mechanical advantage of the lever (Sharma et al, 2003).

Conclusion and Presentation 4 6

All designs made in the workshop have various specifications and requirements to meet and our lathe chuck lift is not left out. The designed role of the design is to lift the chuck head from the lift and back. The lift has a stable base and can easily be moved by one person.

The Winch

A winch is simply a mechanical device designed to adjust the tension of the cable lifting the load. The winch comprises of a hand crank connected to a spool. During the process of operation the winch operates by use of the conventional system or the human effort the winch design comes out with 2 speeds to allow easy handling during the lift operation. A hook is designed in such a way that it can lift and hold the object without falling back. The cable is flexible to allow the movement of the chuck from the machine.

Specifications

It is important for every design to have specifications and operation limits to suit the universal standards of engineering. The chuck lift in this case lifts the weight of up to 200 KG. It base is 2meters by 2 meters with a height of 10 centimeters above the lathe machine. The wheel should be lockable when the lift is in operation. The cable connecting the winch with the lifting hook should have a bedding radius of about

Variables

With reference to the design specifications, there are various variables to be considered in the mechanics equations according to the inputs and outputs, selection of materials as well as the assumptions made during the construction. Some of the most common variables to be considered in this case include, the weight of the ir bars, length and stability of the base, Breadth and width, forces to be applied on the design.

Mathematical models

The project has applied various mechanic lessons learnt in class it its design such as;

  1. The supporting beam flame,

  2. The speed, power and torque in the 24V DC motor, 1750 rpm, 2HP

  3. The design dimensions of the components including the bending radius, the base, the design height as well as the winch.

  4. The forces acting on the devices including the bending forces, torsion, Component stresses.

  5. The belt drive and power transmission shaft.

Components

Testing of the Project

The project was successive according to the various tests done on the project.

Welding test

The connecting rod were connected by welding of the joints and thus a welding test was done to check on the penetration and strength of the various joints.

Load test

Finally various loads of 200KG were loaded on the lift to test on its working and effectiveness.

With a load of 75KG, the lift worked with ease

At the load of 150Kg the lift started to strain

At the load of 200KG the lift cable was at its elastic limit.

At the load of 205 the cable

All the parts of the chuck lift were confirmed to be working in their intended purposes.

  1. DISCUSSION

Lifting of heavy objects is dangerous and can easily lead to accidents at the workshop. Designing a lift to help in the lifting and loading of the objects is necessary. Other than safety chuck lift has several other advantages when used in lifting of the loads including making work easier, saves on labor and time. The lift equipment should be closely inspected during operation and any defect that may occur in the process application. After operating the lathe chuck lift, the lift should be lowered and the power switched off. The equipment are should be kept safe and clean to increase the lifespan.

In this design, the motor is used as the rotating component of the shaft and the power is transmitted to the pulley system is transmitted by the shaft. To increase the power in the system at a lower speed, the pulleys are arranged in such a way that the smaller pulley transmits power to the larger pulley. The sling on the pulleys is lifted by the rope. The wheels and the lever are used to allow the mobility of the design. However, the design has breaking systems installed in it to prevent the movement during work.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the design of the lathe chuck lift discussed in this report puts into practice the lessons learnt in class. The lathe chuck lift is a simple mechanism that makes the lifting and lowering of the chuck head easier, more safe and enjoyable. It combines the knowledge of forces, transmission of power, stresses, and dimensions to develop the mechanical device as shown in the diagrams above. The process of designing the lift impacts one with a detailed knowledge of the engineering basics required in the career. From the project it is evident that all the engineering techniques are equally important and applies. For example in this assignment project, the knowledge of forces, levers, motion are combined in the design in order to effectively achieve the goal.

References

Sharma, C.S. and Purohit, K., 2003. Design of Machine Elements. Prentice-Hall of India.

Bhandari, V.B., 2010. Design of machine elements. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.

Hongyu, T. and Ziyi, Z., 2011. Design and simulation based on Pro/E for a hydraulic lift platform in scissors type. Procedia Engineering, 16, pp.772-781.

Thorley, G.R., Transportation Design & Technology, Inc., 1978. Wheelchair lift. U.S. Patent 4,081,091.