Comparative Advantage Analysis for Long-term Food Production Sustainability Essay Example


Соmраrаtivе Аdvаntаgе Аnаlysis for Lоng-Tеrm Fооd Рrоduсtiоn Sustainability

Соmраrаtivе Аdvаntаgе Аnаlysis for Lоng-Tеrm Fооd Рrоduсtiоn Sustainability

Literature Review


This chapter intends to provide literature materials that are available as well as research findings of various scholars in areas of food production. As noted in the previous chapter, the research will be divided into three phases, as explained below, with each phase addressing certain relevant areas of the whole study. Since the research will be establishing a new food security index, or presumably a different way of looking at food security, the reference to existing ones will be essential in enhancing the literature and methodologies for the purpose of the research. An example of an existing index is the «Global Food Security Index» produced by the Economist’s Intelligence Unit (EIU). The literature will also include other works done by researchers on comparative and absolute advantages in agricultural production, challenges faced in the stale food production and the long-term solutions.

a Sustainable Agricultural Food ProductionOverview of the

responded to this eminent challenge with the list of solutions that they thought could achieve this balance. The report provided an initial analysis of the scope of the challenge of global food and the technical projections of different items.stakeholdersCreating a Sustainable Food Future”,The agricultural system in the world is currently facing a tricky balancing act (Pingali & Evenson 2014). A Study shows that by 2050, if the world was to achieve varying human needs, it will have to simultaneously produce far more amount of food for a 9.6 billion people expected by this time (Pingali & Evenson 2014). The main objective will also have to be providing economic opportunities for the millions of rural poor people who rely on the agriculture for the livelihoods as well as reducing environmental impacts such as high emissions of greenhouse gases and ecosystem degradation. In the 2013-2014 World Resources Report, titled

Sustainable Agricultural Food Production Challenges Facing

admittedly, it is not enough to conduct a comparative advantage analysis on the staple food production in the world but more need to be done to ensured that food gap that exists in the world is minimized as much as possible.the implementation of comparative advantage per food staple per country in the context of a worldwide agricultural production and trade will result in the long-term food security for the world’s population. According to a study in by In Martinho (2014), optimization of staple food production by every country is the most suitable solution to the food problem across the world. However, not all countries especially the developing ones are able to ensure that they produced enough staple food for the domestic population. The obstacles that such countries face include inadequate resources, lack technological skills and development, poor governance, effects of climate change, and others. According to Pingali and Evenson (2014),

In Martinho (2014) contends that it is imperative for stakeholders such as agricultural economists and world institutions including World Food Organization to address the implication of food gap to ecosystems, food security, and green gas emissions. According to Pingali and Evenson (2014), it is only through deliberate actions of bridging the food gap, especially on staple food production that the world can be sure of food security. The scope of food gap has been the main cause of hunger in many parts of the world. According to In Martinho (2014), it is estimated that more 800 million people across the globe remain “food insecure,” which means that such populations is periodically hungry. Statistics indicates that the world is currently facing a 69 % gap between crop calories produced in the year 2006 and those most likely required by 2050. Additionally, in cloinge the gap through increasing agricultural production alone, the total production of food would needs to be increased as well , much more from 2006 to 2050 than it happened in the same number of years from 1962 to 2006 (11% larger increase) (Pingali & Evenson 2014). In this period, meat and milk production, which is considered as stale food in some parts or regions of the world, would need to be increased by 40 % more than it did between 1962 and 2006. Study shows that because the rich out-compete the poor after the supply of food falls short of its demand, the poor in the world will extremely feel the impacts of any gap between supply and demand (Pingali & Evenson 2014).

also poses a big challenge in bridging the gap in staple food production among nations. Roughly, it is estimated that more than 2 billion people are directly or indirectly employed in agriculture, majority of them poor. Therefore, in addressing problem of poverty fully, agriculture should be developed and grown in ways that offer economic opportunities to the poor. Notably, staple food in a country should be the starting point, where mechanization can be done to increases the scope of agricultural land and production. Consequently, measures should be laid down to take advantage of economies of scale. According to FAO, in many developing countries majority of workers in agriculture are women (Pingali & Evenson 2014). Economists argue that raising income for women has disproportionate advantage in alleviating hunger. Therefore, as strategies are put in place to increase staple food production, women should be assisted to provide effective way of reducing poverty and enhancing food security. and povertydevelopmentIn Martinho (2014) observes that the level of

croplands as well as pasture occupy around fifty percent of the land across the globe that is not covered by water, ice or desert. In recent years, there has been increased expansion of pastures as well as cropland, which leads to the loss of biodiversity in the ecosystem and its degradation. In the half a century, pasture and cropland has expanded by roughly 500 million hectares, which is roughly an area equal to 60 % of the United States (Pingali & Evenson 2014). On the other hand, the conversion of savannas, peatlands, and forests to agricultural lands makes around11 % of global emissions of greenhouse gases, which explains why food security is still a big challenge in the world.
land use and biodiversity, challenge is also affecting the production of staple food in many countries. Statistics show thatAccording to Pingali and Evenson (2014),

economic aspects such as tariffs and poor policy frameworks. change challenge, and
crop yields on average would need to be grown by thirty-two percent more from 2006 to 2050 than they did in the last fifty years. Despite the fact that there is substantial potential for increasing the yield, increasing yields at a more rapid rate remains to be a tall order. Statistics show that in the last fifty years, between most farmers across the world adopted scientifically bred seeds as well as fertilizer, while at the same time the area under irrigation was doubled. However, little water is left today to expand irrigated lands. Similarly, there is no new dominant technology appears readily available to solve this problem. Further, climate change may as well depress the staple food production yields substantially, making gains more elusive. Notably the problem of yields also goes beyond the issue of pasture, which forms more than two-thirds of agricultural land across the world (Pingali & Evenson 2014). Other problems that face staple food production include poor governance, climate crop as well as pasture yield is a problem to be solved by increasing the annual harvested area. In this respect,In addition, Pingali and Evenson (2014) observe that agricultural economists admit that

Sustainable Agricultural Food Production Solutions of to the

The objective of the study is to provide foundation or basis on which further researchers can be carried out when trying to find a concrete solution to the imbalances in staple food production across the world. Consequently, the methodology of the study will be divided into three phases including analyzing a new food security index, International Trade, and Long-term sustainability as explained in the next chapter. The first phase involves adoption of trial and error in testing different agricultural factors provided by the World Bank from 1960 onwards. The objective is to allocate the best factors in providing an insight on the progress achieved by each country in terms of agricultural. The second phase will establish all absolute and comparative advantages related to the countries in the first phase. However, additional analysis will be done in regards to each of the top 20 food staples produced and exported in correlation with the trade balance of each country. The third and final phase will build on phase two by fully integrating costs of production into a global agricultural system and then proposing the staples to be produced and at what levels for each country.


According to In Martinho (2014), it is necessary to understand the level of staple food production per every country in order to assess the capacity of every region. In Martinho (2014) posits that agricultural economist have failed to conduct convincing research which would lay the foundation in finding long term food production in the world. Therefore, application of three-phased research study in this project will be instrumental in finding solution to food insecurity in the world regions.


. Sydney: Oxford The agricultural economics of the 21st centuryIn Martinho, V. J. P. D. (2014).

. Handbook of agricultural economics: Volume 4Pingali, P. L., & Evenson, R. E. (2014).

Amsterdam: Elsevier.