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  1. Data governance involves developing advanced policies and decisions with regard to data[CITATION Sun11 l 1033 ], and data management involves executing the decisions and policies including performing daily activities such as correcting data, defining metadata, modeling data, among others to ensure that data meets the daily needs of business. While data management is done by data stewards, data governance is done by senior managers from various branches of organizations[CITATION Ros10 l 1033 ]. Data administration involves ensuring that database work properly according to the set policies and standards. It also involves issuance of access rights to users of data therefore creating levels of access.

  2. Anyone wants to be the owner of data because the owner has the privileges of accessing, manipulating, managing, and storing data. The owner also has the privilege of using the data in a manner that is lawful. This entails selling the data, leasing data, and implementing security policies that govern the use of data. Anyone does not want to be the steward because they are only the custodians of the information or data. Stewardship demands that information is handled with care and integrity, and shared only to those who are trusted[CITATION Plo14 l 1033 ]. It requires that information is obtained and managed as a resource that adds value to the society and the government[CITATION Ros10 l 1033 ]. This means that the steward is not the owner of the data and has no power to manipulate or use the data for own gain.

  3. The pentultimate steward of Gondor was a ruler who administered Gondor in the absence of the king, practicing all the powers of the king, though did not associate himself with the supremacy symbols. Stewards of Gondor administered the throne of the king until the real king of Gondor regained it. This is important because it gives us the true meaning and function of a steward. Like was mentioned earlier that a steward is a custodian of data but not owner of data[CITATION Sun11 l 1033 ], steward of Gondor was a custodian of the throne of the king but not the owner or the true king.


The insight of the work of Dyche (2007) is proper design of data governance. He differentiates the meaning of data governance and data management. This is because many people have mistaken the two terms. While data governance deals with high-level decision and policy making about data, data management involves implementation of the decisions and policies. Like information systems development, data governance design goes through life cycle to ensure that the process is “deliberate, tune-able, and evolutionary” (Dyche 2007, p. 7). Data governance should also follow some best practices to ensure that the decisions and policies developed are sustainable. The topic was relevant because data governance is an important aspect to consider for proper database management.

The insight of the article written by Dawes (2010) is role of stewards in relation to transparency of information. Since stewards are always in charge of data and not owners of data in database management, the article was relevant when discussing transparency. This is because many democratic governments are of the idea that information should be accessible, transparent, and open to those they govern. I agree with the article as it helps in exploring the issue of openness and transparency of data for various stakeholders to learn and know the level of transparency that data should be in in relation to type of users.

The insight in the research of Constant, Kiesler, and Sproull (1994) is attitude of people in information sharing. They found that people are not willing to share information or computer programs to people they do not trust such as those that were not helpful to them in the past. The research was relevant because of the current networking of computers and the internet which enhances sharing of information. I agree with the article as it provides the basis of sharing information and the attitude of people with regard to information sharing.


Constant, D., Kiesler, S., & Sproull, L., 1994, What’s mine is ours, or is it? A study of attitudes about information sharing, Information System Research, 5(4), 400-421.

Dawes, S. S., 2010, “Stewardship and usefulness: Policy principles for information-based transparency,” Government Information Quarterly, 27, 377-383.

Dyche, J., 2007, “A data governance manifesto: Designing and deploying sustainable data governance,” Baseline Consulting.

Plotkin, D., 2013. Data stewardship: An actionable guide to effective data management and data governance. 1st ed. New York: Morgan Kaufmann. Retrieved from

Rosenbaum, S., 2010. Data governance and stewardship: Designing data stewardship entities and advancing data access. Health Services Research, 45(5 Pt 2), pp. 1442-1455. Retrieved from

Sun, H., 2011. Enterprise information management best practices in data governance, Redwood Shores, CA: Oracle Corporation. Retrieved from