CNC milling machine 2 Essay Example

CAD/CAM Analysis

Table of Contents

1Task 1: Solutions

3Task 2: Solution

6Summary

6Introduction 1.0

7Milling Machines 1.1

7CNC Milling Machine 1.2

7New technology 1.3

7Report and analysis 2.0

21Discussion 3.0

22Conclusion 4.0

24Reference

Task 1: Solutions

RPM = (4*C.S)/D
1.0 Calculate the speeds and feeds for a 10 mm four flute short end mill

D = Diameter of work(lathe) or cutter(mill)
C.S. = Cutting Speed (From chart for material type and tool material type)
4 = Constant
Where:

= (4 * 6)/10

Feedrate = Chip load per tooth * # of teeth

2.0 Using correct tool path strategy, apply planer machining to achieve a good surface finish

Toot path strategy include between curve milling which help in generating tool path that will help in creating a smooth interpolated surface between two curves. The advantage of this strategy is that it is easy and convenient to use.

Constant step over is another tool path wherein the tool follows the shape of the pocket using the parallel paths that are separated with the constant step over. It is important in producing consistent and regular looking finish. However, this strategy has limited performance resulting from high corner loads (Pabst et al., 2014).

Constant machining is another Z is another strategy with typically used for finishing where the tool path tracks are constant Z around the profile which is being machined. This type is used for steep walls with another strategy applied to other situations. The figure below shows a re-marching tool path base on the knowledge of stock remaining (Pabst et al., 2014).

CNC milling machine 2

3.0 What method of work holding methods would facilitate the safe and successful execution of this component?

It is important that the work should be held in the milling machine for effective operation of the machine. The pressure in cutting is exhorted by the milling cutter which is quite high compared with the single point tool of the lathe machine. There are several methods of holding work on the milling machine and they include: — T-Bolts and clamps which is efficient and recommended for bulky work with irregular shape. Angle plates is another method which work on surfaces which are to be milled are held at right angles to another face angle plates. There is also V block used for holding shafts on the milling machine table and is responsible for efficient execution of the components (Anadioti et al., 2014).

4.0 How to obtain optimum cutting performance model through modifying the cutting paths

For high speed cutting, the cutting technology defines the process. It is five to ten times higher with spindle speed and this keeps the feed per tooth constant compared to conventional machining, the feed rate has to be increased in the same ratio as this is the required modification required for optimum performance in cutting (Pabst et al., 2014).

5.0 How to reduce the cycle time for optimum cutting tooling methods

Normally the cycle time depends on the tool path and the cutting parameters which are used depends majorly on the programmer parameters. The important concept in reducing the cycle time is travel less and travel fast and travelling less can be achieved by reducing the distance travelled in both the cutting and rapid motions. Some good tool to have is CAD and CAM system which will require unique tool path for each operations. The two will automatically calculate the shortest tool path hence reducing the cutting time (Pabst et al., 2014).

6.0 Different machining methods of strategy for maximum efficiency

One of the strategy is the Vortex strategy which produces tool paths with a controlled engagement angle for the complete operation. This kind of technology has been developed to help gain the maximum benefits from the solid carbide tooling more so in those designs than can help in giving deeper cuts by using the full flute lengths as the cutting surface. The Vortex tool paths are calculated to help in providing efficient machining through following the shape of the part and keeping air moves to a minimum level (Anadioti et al., 2014).

Task 2: Solution

  1. Method of data transfer with respect to a three dimensional CadCam program

In manufacturing designs, there are many systems used in managing technical product data. There are two major methods of file translators using CadCam. They are Neutral and direct methods. The neutral translators are useful in converting the propriety of CAD or CAD data to the format which is generally agreed upon by the industry players and are available for anyone. Direct translators can exchange data directly into CAD software’s proprietary format (Anadioti et al., 2014).

2.0 Tool path creation flowchart

The tool path follow the following steps. The paths which it follows is shown in the diagram below:-

CNC milling machine 2 1

From the path being followed. It starts with the work piece geometry and free form surface selection. Figure 1 and 2 shows this arrangement and the surface selection for the new design which is being modeled for the prototyping. Choosing the free surface form gives the overall design on where it will work and perform other operations of the design. The second step is surface grid generation for part of machine of the total surface. The generation of grid is shown in figure 3 and 4 giving the overall object piece outlook for the design. In performing the operation it also depends on the accuracy of the feed rate and other specification of the machine, for CAM operation CNC machine is used (Anadioti et al., 2014).

The third part is the determination of cutting depth in axial and radial directions in part of the total geometry. The curvature tool path effect on the thickness as well as the exit and entry are analyzed in the diagram and the cutting force model of the linear milling process which is then corrected. The flow charts ends with the surface geometry analysis in the tool path process.

3.0 Justify the method used for producing components of CNC machine

The simplicity of producing these parts are very essential for the overall performance of the machine. They are passed through quality which gives them the necessary durability required of the machine (Ruse and Sadoun 2014).

4.0 Boundary methods to reduce tool lift

Some of the common ways of boundary methods to reduce tool lift and stress on machine include rotation of the cylinder or the elimination of the boundary layer that is forced on the side which is moving in the same direction as the free stream. Another one is separation of the boundary layer and lastly blown from the faired slit (Ruse and Sadoun 2014).

5.0 Block transfer

The following methods can be used to improve block transfer:-

  • Through reviewing the settings and consider the setting to the 1 MB or more. To help in fine tuning and set the number of channel programs which include second positional parameters as well.

  • By increasing the block size when it is advantageous to do the same. This can improves performance by increasing the number of bytes transfer per I/O.

Summary

Technology in manufacturing sector has improved tremendously with most functional requirements and automobile machines in modern industrial manufacturing set up. Curved surfaces of the machine parts are in great demand. The experts are required to put much effort in ensuring successful optimization. Tools like CAD are providing suitable environment for expert in developing models of the product by giving essential physical parameters of the product to be developed. With parametric technology in place, it can be used in defining the dimensions relations among parameters and between design parts. From the diagram above, we are able to define new part through assigning new values to the parameters. The advantage of using these machine is that they reduce labour cost by giving a more accurate component in manufacturing process. It further help in reducing the total production lead time as it makes it possible to see how the component will be reduced in the manufacturing process.

1.0 Introduction

Technology in manufacturing sector has improved tremendously with most functional requirements and automobile machines in modern industrial manufacturing set up. Curved surfaces of the machine parts are in great demand. The experts are required to put much effort in ensuring successful optimization (Awad et al., 2015). Tools like CAD are providing suitable environment for expert in developing models of the product by giving essential physical parameters of the product to be developed. Usually, the CAD software helps in representing the models in the desired shape and from the CAD it can be analyzed by users by ensuring the desired shape is effectively verified. Normally the CAD design and modeling are very effective in covering the geometric parameters and issues using software. Based on this fact, desired CAD model the tool path of the CNC is usually programmed to help in generating the desired project of the object piece. Most designers faces different challenges when using the CNC machine and the main problem which they face is the profile of the tool path that helps in giving shape to the piece object in the most desirable way. Therefore, it is important to have an effective manual program which is purely based on the controlling the performance operation. It is usually advisable to have automatic programmed control for the tool path generation as opposed to manual control. The quality of product produced squarely depends on the performance of these machines hence need for quality work and proper functioning machines. This will help in producing quality product in the manufacturing process (Yüksel, et al., 2017).

1.1 Milling Machines

These machines were created by Eli Whitney to help in large scale manufacturing in the assembling area. Processing machines help in expelling metal with a spinning cutting apparatus known as processing cutter. The machine has a few connections, the machine can be utilized as a part of exhausting, opening, roundabout processing among different capacities. The machine is likewise valuable in cutting keyways, racks and design and for fluting taps and reamers (Yüksel, et al., 2017). The machines are typically delegated either being vertical or even to help in showing the pivot of the processing machine. The vast majority of these machines have independent electric drive engines and coolant frameworks.

1.2 CNC Milling Machine

This is a computer Numerical Control (CNC) milling is one of the most common form of CNC Machine. It is capable of performing the functions of drilling and often turning. CNC mills are useful and normally classified as per the number of axes that they have. They have axes which are labeled. The machines are usually programmed automatically using different commands like G-codes and M-codes. The G-codes and M-codes usually represent specific CNC functions in alphanumerical format. They are very useful in the modern manufacturing as they help in improving the manufacturing design process (Kibbe et al., 2014).

1.3 New technology

New technology involve combination of the CNC and CAD machines in manufacturing process. The two machines are interfaced and it require a more skilled operator in order to manage it. The technology designs in stages with CAD tool being used first before it is switched to CAM tool. The new technology is useful in modern manufacturing set up and help in producing useful and desired objects (Kibbe et al., 2014).

2.0 Report and analysis

The report and analysis of the CAD and CNC program was carried out and the geometry parameters of a complex mechanical object with the help of computer program. The CAD based program for freeform surface generation was carried out and the model in present design

CNC milling machine 2 2

Figure 1: Work piece geometry and free form surface selection

With parametric technology in place, it can be used in defining the dimensions relations among parameters and between design parts. From the diagram above, we are able to define new part through assigning new values to the parameters. Other characteristics of modeling the user access and experssion can be expressed in the 2-D and 3-D framework shown below:-

CNC milling machine 2 3

Figure 2: Free form surface selection

From the above diagram, CAD tool which help in defining the geometry parameters of complex mechanical object with the help of computer. The model above gives the geometric estimation or the prototype design of the object.

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Figure 3:surface grid generation

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Figure 4: Synthesized surface grid generation

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3.0 Discussion

From the analysis of the CAD/CAM system prototype above, it shows that the computer controlled machine operation is done using the program which specifically follow the tool-path and is programmed using the two machine languages. This help in defining the tool path during the operation of the machine. It is clear from the above diagrams that the tool is purely moving along defined paths. The paths which it follows is shown in the diagram below:-

CNC milling machine 2 24

From the path being followed. It starts with the work piece geometry and free form surface selection. Figure 1 and 2 shows this arrangement and the surface selection for the new design which is being modeled for the prototyping. Choosing the free surface form gives the overall design on where it will work and perform other operations of the design.

The second step is surface grid generation for part of machine of the total surface. The generation of grid is shown in figure 3 and 4 giving the overall object piece outlook for the design. In performing the operation it also depends on the accuracy of the feed rate and other specification of the machine, for CAM operation CNC machine is used.

The third part is the determination of cutting depth in axial and radial directions in part of the total geometry. The curvature tool path effect on the thickness as well as the exit and entry are analyzed in the diagram and the cutting force model of the linear milling process which is then corrected.

The calculation of maximum cutting force is being done at this stage and this help in designing the object and it has direct effect on the cutting tool. The images of the object piece is shown in other pictures above with clear specifications. In order to ensure the success of the CAD system implementation, more training is necessary and this will help the operators to get well equipped with necessary skills for the operation of the machine.

The machine work is closely monitored and analyzed for the desired surface profile for the production of the smooth surface. The use of computer programming is based on control avoids any kind of disruption in the process. Using different tools in coming up with the final project is equally important as it will help in coming up with the desired shape of the tool being modelled. Another important factor which should be considered in the process is the cost factor as the design should take the cheapest approach in coming up with the model.

4.0 Conclusion

This paper gives a brief insights on the optimized process analysis for producing a freeform surface using the 3-axis CNC machine, CAD and CAM machine analysis. The design analysis is done using the CAD based 3D surface model. From the design, there is a consensus that the overall increase in the automated design tool in manufacturing sector is undeniable. CNC mills are useful and normally classified as per the number of axes that they have. They have axes which are labeled. The machines are usually programmed automatically using different commands like G-codes and M-codes. The G-codes and M-codes usually represent specific CNC functions in alphanumerical format. This is another important aspect of this project as it help in ensuring that the design is accurate and to the desired output. The advantage of using these machine is that they reduce labour cost by giving a more accurate component in manufacturing process. It further help in reducing the total production lead time as it makes it possible to see how the component will be reduced in the manufacturing process. The machine help in reducing the tool load and provides high speed machining process.

Reference

Anadioti, E., Aquilino, S.A., Gratton, D.G., Holloway, J.A., Denry, I., Thomas, G.W. and Qian, F., 2014. 3D and 2D marginal fit of pressed and CAD/CAM lithium disilicate crowns made from digital and conventional impressions. Journal of Prosthodontics, 23(8), pp.610-617.

Awad, D., Stawarczyk, B., Liebermann, A. and Ilie, N., 2015. Translucency of esthetic dental restorative CAD/CAM materials and composite resins with respect to thickness and surface roughness. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry, 113(6), pp.534-540.

Kibbe, R.R., White, W.T., Meyer, R.O., Curran, K. and Stenerson, J., 2014. Machine tool practices. Pearson.

Pabst, A.M., Walter, C., Grassmann, L., Weyhrauch, M., Brüllmann, D.D., Ziebart, T., Scheller, H. and Lehmann, K.M., 2014. Influence of CAD/CAM all-ceramic materials on cell viability, migration ability and adenylate kinase release of human gingival fibroblasts and oral keratinocytes. Clinical oral investigations, 18(4), p.1111.

Ruse, N.D. and Sadoun, M.J., 2014. Resin-composite blocks for dental CAD/CAM applications. Journal of dental research, 93(12), pp.1232-1234.

Yüksel, E., Budak, E. and Ertürk, A.S., 2017. The Effect of Linear Guide Representation for Topology Optimization of a Five-axis Milling Machine. Procedia CIRP, 58, pp.487-492.