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Environmental cues: lighting, temperature, seating arrangement

Lighting affects communication by interfering with the level of arousal of the audience. When there is inadequate lighting in the room, people will tend to get sleepy due to reduced level of arousal. Low or high temperatures creates discomfort to both the presenter and the audience thus there will be no concentration during communication.

Seating is another environmental factor that influences communication. Seats should be arranged in a manner that permits the presenter and the audience to make eye contact during communication. When the seats are arranged such that the speaker is not at the Centre of the audience where he/she can have a better view of the audience, then there be a problem with delivery of the message as some of the audience may not be attentive.

The communicator and the audience have responsibilities to play towards each other. To begin with, the responsibilities of the communicator may include; being organized, clear and being punctual. Organization is important for the audience to follow the message logically without losing focus. When the communicator is not organized, there are chances that the audience may not be attentive to what he/she is putting across. Clarity of the communicator will enable the audience to get the intended message without confusing or taking more time trying to understand it. Also, communicating clearly enables people to perform what is right as the correction information is received and understood well. This is especially when the communicator is giving instructions to the audience on what to do. Through accurate information that is simple to understand, audience’ trust can easily be won thus maintaining good relations with the audience.

The responsibility of the audience to the communicator is to provide feedback on whether they are understanding the message so as to avoid one way communication [ CITATION Nis14 l 1033 ]. By providing feedback to the communicator, this will help the communicator to address the challenge, if any that is affecting the delivery of the message. In case of oral presentation, the communicator is able to get instant feedback from the audience through non-verbal indicators such as facial expression, and their own comments and evaluation[ CITATION Bau14 l 1033 ].

Thought influences the use of language as without thought, then language would be having no ideas to express in form of symbols. Thought creates imaginations that have no meaning, these imaginations are coded in a way that is understood by a particular culture so as to be transmitted among the users. Over the years before the introduction of writing, culture has been passed from generation to generation by word of mouth. This process relied entirely to the memory of the participants and any adjustment made would distort the message and bring a new understanding thus creating a different language that the initial sender may not be able to understand if it is sent back. Language relies on the words that have been used already by a particular group of people for it to have meaning hence for a new language to be used, one has to have some background understanding of the language before using the language.

Studies have shown that men and women gain self-confidence in different ways and language was shown to influence self-perception in women as they value much the feedback from their friends [ CITATION Sch14 l 1033 ]. Those learning a new language tend to have a lower self-esteem when they do not learn it faster or speak fluently as others. They tend to view themselves as less competent compared those with the capability to speak well [ CITATION pet15 l 1033 ].

Self-concept is how one thinks and feels about themselves and it comes from the interactions with others, from what others say or think. Language influences self-concept as one is able to understand what others say about them. An example is one visits a foreign country where everybody speaks in a language that is not his and when positive comments are made to him, the person may think they are commenting about his weaknesses thus affecting his self-concept. Also, people may feel unable to participate in certain activities or function when they cannot understand the language used by the majority of the participants in that particular event. This will make the person feel less and have negative self-concept [ CITATION Rub151 l 1033 ].

The headline of the article “Georgetown Confronts Ugly Past” by Ariel Davis in New York Times captures the reader’s attention as they try figure out the past that Georgetown had. In the introduction, the author introduces the topic and explains why it had to take such a step.

The body of the article contains the whole story about the battle mentioned in the title. It gives the details of the measures taken to restore the image of the University so as to restore good image that was once tainted. Renaming one of the University building to one of the men sold and giving preferential admission treatment to descendants of those who were enslaved.

The writer concludes that the university’s move to treat the descendants essentially as legacy applicants is a welcome move [ CITATION Dav16 l 1033 ].

Use of doublespeak is good especially when used in sad situation such as. This because it creates humor and makes the people feel better as it does not use bad or the unacceptable words. In the process, double speak allows use of ethical words which may not affect the rights of the people using the medium. On the other hand, it brings no change to the situation even after nice word have been used.

Signposting in an article by Greg Uyeno

“Furthermore…” used in the article to add more idea about the previou point that was mentioned

“Our previous studies have shown…” has been used to cross reference to other studies that were done before so that readrs that may have not read it can get an idea of how the situation was.

“In the new study…” this helps the reader to shift back to the present situation.

“However, other researchers…” has been used to add more detail to the preceding statement in the article.

“Furthermore…”to add more ideas to the ones given already.

An excerpt below is from a book on oncology and it contains medical jargon


The following terms are unfamiliar; CaP, PSA, FDA and malignancy. The author has simplified by writing the abbreviations in full for the first time they appear so that the reader does not face difficulty while reading. For malignancy, the author made it simpler when cancer is used so the reader learns it is a type of cancer.

My self-concept influences my writing when I feel what I write is not so good and those reading will find errors and start judging me as a poor writer. This makes me to do much reading so as to improve on my skills to be a better writer. When writing something that am very familiar with and knowing the audience, I’ll have a good self-perception thus write with much confidence. Having a good self-perception makes a person to be open and be able to express himself well thus good writing is made when one sees himself to be able and has worth. The person to whom I write to determines how I write because when writing I think of what that person may be thinking about me and my writing so when that person is better or more qualified than me, I will tend to less due to the fear of being judged by the reader.

According to psychology, self-fulfilling prophecy leads to unfavorable outcomes. When one has an expectation of that something will occur, there are chances that the same will occur as example of a self-fulling effect is applied in the field of medicine where a patient is given a drug with no therapeutic effect. Since the patient believes that the drug will bring healing, there will an effect on his/her immune system where it gets enhanced and this in turn makes their condition better. This self-fulfilling prophecy brings placebo effect.

Self-fulfilling prophecy does not have an effect over natural events such as earthquakes but it influences on the way one interacts with people and their response to one’s own behavior. For instance, when one always has an optimistic mindset, they are able to change other’s perception about them as he/she may be perceived as positive [ CITATION Mer14 l 1033 ].

Negative self-fulfilling prophecies leads to low self-esteem where those affected tend to act overly on critical self-evaluation where they have a pessimistic view of the world and their chances to influence their own situation. In the process, the negative mindset leads to strengthening of their self-strengthening prophecies.

Our view on the things we see or people we interact with is determined by our perception because during perception process, we tend to choose how we perceive things. During the selection process, we get exposed to different stimuli. We decide to pay attention to one specific stimulus and this is guided by our attitude towards that particular stimulus. This process will be based on how that particular stimulus is viewed by others as a result, our goals will be compromised since we tend to follow other’s attitudes in making our decisions [ CITATION Las15 l 1033 ].

How one perceives the world influences their general emotional state. Those who perceive abundance tend to be happy while those who perceive their life as lacking tend to be sad. When one perceives life as a struggle will tend to find problems in every situation and hence will have no happiness while those that are successful see solutions to very problem. One’s perception limits their view to the good things that life offers as if they have a fixed perception about something, there is a tendency to remain that way and if it is a problem that is perceived as difficult, the person will tend avoid it thus limiting himself to an opportunity that may arise from solving it.

Listening styles



People oriented listening

Focus on emotions

Can get accurate message from the speaker

They overly get involved impairing their sense of judgement

They can be seen as intrusive by some speakers

Content oriented listening

They test expertize and truthfulness

Focuses on facts

Takes caution while doing assessment

Ideas of other speakers may be ignored

Action oriented listening

It takes a critical look

It harries the speaker towards a conclusion

Time oriented listening

Seeks short answers which are easy to b understood

Annoys others who are keen to listen to the speaker

Noise from the psychological states arises from moods and level of arousal and they interfere with listening through distraction. To reduce the noise due to reduced arousal, the presentation needs to done in a room with adequate lighting for the listener to remain aroused. Overexcited can also cause distraction and this can be minimized by ensuring the listener is calm and ready to listen for them to get the message.

Another psychological noise arises from stress due to an upcoming event. This events may include; losing a job, an upcoming operation, or about food to be eaten for lunch. To minimize this noise, the listener should ensure they have no worries about this events. Presentations should not be made when it is approaching lunch time to prevent psychological noise to the audience.

I would not send the message to my Professor because it uses a colloquial language which is not official and also not universal as the professor may not understand some words. There is much use of contracted words, the format used is not form and thus the text is not appropriate to be sent to the professor. The formative expectations of professor-student communication is that, the language used is official and at a minimum, an email to the professor should contain a salutation, subject, body and conclusion. In addition, it should not contain contractions and the grammar used must be correct.

The choice of works used is determined by the audience to which the communicator is addressing. For example, when writing about a health issue, let’s say an outbreak of some disease in the country, the writer will address the topic the general public and the medical professional using different information as the public will be informed of the issue using the language they understand while the medical professionals will also be addressed using the medical terminology and also abbreviations may be used. An example is a talk on stroke; for the medics, “CVA is caused by impaired perfusion to the cerebral hemispheres due to ischemia or hemorrhage” for the non-medical team, the language needs to be simple for them to understand with ease such as, “Stroke is caused by reduced supply of blood to the brain.”

Sales letter

Wara Refineries Limited

P.O. Box 433 CA


The director

Hillside School

P.O.Box 98765, N Y

Dear Sir/madam,

We would like to appreciate your school for the continued support you have given to us through use of our products. The collaboration your school has made with us has contributed to our success and growth in provision of quality products to our clients.

As our goal to meet our client’s needs, we have added more products to the ones we initially had. You can now have Amara washing soap which is lasts longer than the ordinary soaps found in the market. With Amara washing soap you are assured to save about 40% of the total expenditure on soap and your cleaning services will be done with much ease.

For samples and to order for the product, give us a call on or visit our office.

Yours sincerely,

Rajab Barry

M.D Wara Refineries Ltd.

Tel. 918456

Email. [email protected]

Wara Refineries Limited

Box 453 CA


The Manager,

Sati Cleaners

Box 98, N Y

Dar Sir/madam

Re: washing solution

Am writing to inform you of our new soap that we introduced to the market last week. Our company introduced new Amara washing soap that lasts twice longer compared to the ordinary soaps.

This innovation was after a long period of research by our chemical engineers that came with an idea of producing this unique product that am sure your company will appreciate. The soap exists in both liquid and powder forms and it is recommended for all purposes including laundry and general use. This product has been tried and comparisons made with the existing soaps found that users will be saving about 40% of their budget on soap.

For more information about our product and trial samples, visit us our offices at Wara plaza during office working hours or call us on our telephone number below.

Looking forward to hear from you.

Yours faithfully,

Rajab Barry

M.D Wara Refineries Ltd.

Tel. 918456

Email. [email protected]

Product: washing soap

Companies: Sati cleaners, Hill Hospital and Hillside school

Sati cleaners

It’s the largest cleaning company in town with five branches in the neighboring towns. The company uses soap worth approximately $1000 on daily basis. Our product has better quality compared to those available in the market, we can get about 90% of the market share from Sati cleaners.

Hill Hospital

The Hospital serves an average of 300 patients per day in the outpatient and has a bed capacity of 200. The hospital has cleaning personnel that maintain infection control and ensure a clean hospital environment. On average, cleaning soap costs about $500 daily for the laundry and scrubbing of the floors.

Hillside school

The school has a population of 2000 students starting from primary to secondary. The school has over 50 classrooms, 3 halls, 7 laboratories and 20 offices. Cleaning of all these structure consumes much soap and Amara soap will be the product of choice.

A longer is justifiable when it is submitted electronically as the reader will view it with much ease compared to when it is submitted in hard copy and the reader has to turn pages and the applicants are many. Also, a longer resume for an experienced professional is justifiable as they enrich it with the details of job experience they possess which adds value to their resume [ CITATION Han15 l 1033 ].

To speak to diverse audience, the speaker has to speak in a neutral accent so as to accommodate all the groups in the presentation [ CITATION Dav15 l 1033 ]. Apart from accent, he/she has to speak in a normal pace, not too fast as some audience may be having problems with the language hence take longer to grasp the message. While giving examples, the speaker needs to understand the backgrounds and cultures of the participants so that the examples given do not offend a particular group of the audience as a joke in one culture may mean something different in another.

When saying a work in a language he/she is not familiar with, it is important to know its pronunciation well so that it does not bring out a different meaning. The speaker has to stick to a formal language and avoid slang as it may be meaningless to some members of the audience[ CITATION Cal04 l 1033 ]. The speaker has to be keen on his /her body language, gesture, mannerism and eye contact as it speaks a lot. Some of the expressions may be interpreted differently by the different groups.

It is very important to consider the rhetorical situation when preparing for a presentation so that delivery of the message is achieved and the audience leave when they are satisfied. Considering the three elements of rhetoric situation, context analysis is important so as to ensure the mode of speech delivery that will be used and also to prepare the content that will be relevant to the context. Understanding the audience will help the speaker to know their needs and expectation so that he/she tries to address. This will prevent creation of boredom when the speaker prepares a presentation meant for the old people only to find the audience consisting of teenagers. Understanding the purpose leads towards being relevant to the audience’s expectations.

To adapt the message to the specific groups can be achieved by ensuring that the respect for their choices is maintained especially for the college students who may have had tattoos and speaking anything negative may hurt them hence they start having a negative attitude towards the speaker. Negative impacts of tattoos need to highlight tactfully to ensure no one is victimized. For the primary children, they may be having little knowledge about tattoos hence need to be spoken to in more detail than the college students.

Ethics is involved in organizing a presentation and it involves respecting the audience, good preparation, picking a topic that is consistent with own beliefs and respecting the audience’s time. Respecting the audience may involve respecting their age, gender, appearance and nationality [ CITATION Sch151 l 1033 ].

Good preparation involves taking time to ensure the audience get the best content so that they do not feel betrayed. Also, it is ethical for the presenter to be consistent with his own beliefs so that his body language does not contradict with the speech.

Time spent by the audience to attend the presentation has to be respected by the presenter by taking the required time for the presentation and knowing when to end the presentation.

John McCain’s Concession speech in Phoenix

He starts the speech by calling attention of his audience and thanking them for attending.

In the introduction, McCain introduces the objective of his speech as to congratulate Barack Obama for the victory. He describes briefly how the journey to elections had been and how he feels after the defeat to assure the audience he is well.

The main content of the speech is organized in a way that he addresses all have been supporting him and thanks all Americans for exercising their democracy to choose the right president.

To conclude, he urges all his supporters to celebrate with him Obama’s victory and to wish him well as he starts his new career, to forget about the differences they had during the campaigns.

He finishes his speech by giving a residual message that they should not despair of the present difficulties but to focus on the future nation.

An outline of a speech technology in healthcare

Organizing principle

Sample outline


Before the introduction of CT scanning, people used die of stroke without getting any medication since it was impossible to make a diagnosis until post-mortem is done but nowadays scans of the brain are taken to guide on the type of medications to be given.

Cause and effect

Due to improved diagnostic techniques, deaths due to stroke have reduced since introduction of CT scans in the medical care.

Reference list

Bauer, V., 2014. The initiative of th Audience. Journal of Advetising Research, pp. 50-73.

Callison , D. & Lamb, A., 2004. Key Words in Instruction: Audience Analysis. In School Library Media Activities, 32(4), pp. 31-46.

Davidson, J., 2015. The Complete Guide to Public speaking. 5th ed. s.l.:Wiley Publishers.

Davis, A., 2016. Georgetown ConfrontsUgly Past. Opinion Today Newsletter, 1 September.

Hansen, K., 2015. the Scoop on Resume Length: How many pages should your resume be?. Quintzine, pp. 1-28.

Lasswell , H. D., 2015. The Structure and Function of Communication in Society. Forum, Issue 27, pp. 197-226.

Merton, K., 2014. Social theory and Social Structure, New York: Free Press.

Nistorescu, A., 2014. The Importance of Audience in a successful Professional Oral Communication. Annals-Economy series, Issue 18, pp. 98-124.

petra, C. M., 2015. Self-Help: Shattering the myths. Psychology today, pp. 70-85.

Rubio, F., 2015. Self-concept and Foreign Language Learning. Newcastle: Fernando Rubio and Contributors.

Schutze, Q. & Schutze, Q. J., 2015. An Essential Guide to Public Speaking: Serving Your Audience with Faith, Skill and Virtue. 3rd ed. Grand Rapids Missouri: Baker Academic.

Schwalbe, M. L. & Staples, C., 2014. Gender Differnce in Self Esteem. Social Psychology Quarterly.