Civil Engineering Topics Essay Example
- Category:Engineering and Construction
- Document type:Article
Civil Engineering Topics
Clay minerals in civil engineering.
In designing an economic foundation of a building or structure, the considerations incorporates permeability, settlements and bearing capacity. Clay is a cohesive soil and before utilization of clays, the mechanical properties of the clay should be understood. The determination can employ properties, such as permeability, plasticity, compressibility, and shear strength through laboratory tests. It is crucial also to note the chemical components that are found in the clay soil because it defines the chemical properties. A civil engineer has to appreciate these chemical properties, accept the properties and utilize these properties. The situation of a civil engineer is different from a structural engineer because the structural engineer deals with concrete and steel, and can manipulate the ratios to reflect on the application requirements.
The conditions of cohesive soil are different from non-cohesive soils such as gravels and sand since it is easier to influence the soil properties of sand and gravel compared to clay. For example, the strength and permeability can be manipulated by adjusting the properties by numerous processes including emulsions, suspensions, and chemicals into the void of the soils. Nevertheless, the continuous developments in clay minerals analysis through laboratories and research have improved understanding of clay minerals and created mechanisms, which can be used to strengthen and utilize accordingly the soil. For example, an engineer can calculate the chemical properties of mineral soil and determine the load capacity and assign quantitative figure based on the requirements of the site. Therefore, a civil engineer has to understand the clay minerals in determining the structures or projects including stability of the project. Hence, clay minerals influence the outcome of projects.
Rheology of soil in civil engineering
Rheology character of soil provides information and strategies employed in civil engineering. The character of soil may accelerate rheology resulting to accidents, such as flood erosion, raging billow, tsunami, and earthquake. In addition, human activities such as vibration also influence the soil, and civil engineers have to understand the association between the different soil and structural requirements. Understanding Rheology opportune a civil engineer with strategies of ensuring structural stability based on different working conditions. Understanding Rheology of soil in civil engineering enables effective determination of loading requirements and types of loading: for example, static load and dynamic loading raise concerns, and rheology aspects assist in the determination of appropriate engineering approach.
Continuous developments in rheology have been applied in civil engineering disciplines. For example, understanding rheology problems through studying rock mass and soft rock, and the inclusion of fissures and joints avoids civil engineering with fundamentals to design and implement products. For instance, design optimization of tunnel structures, high earth stress region and fracture mechanics are possible through understanding rheology. Without the aspect of rheology, it becomes a challenge for civil engineers to understand the movements of soil and influence of the soil to the structural stability of the designs. In addition, civil engineers can engage and collaborate with structural engineers based on available information, and utilize the information to generate safe and reliable projects.
In addition, rheology affords civil engineers to utilize engineering techniques of fluid mechanics and dynamics in improving the quality of the projects. Through the determination of consolidation, strength, and composition, and with the help of soil mechanism, engineering structures are constructed. A civil engineer is required to understand the rheology to appreciate numerous of construction including support material, type of foundation, type of equipment and type of structure. Hence, it enables a civil engineer to integrate the different components in constructing.
Rheology and soil mechanics.
Social mechanics describes the behavior of soils, and it is a branch of engineering mechanics. Social mechanisms enable understanding of particles such as gravel and sand, heterogeneous mixture of fluids such as water and soil, whole factoring into consideration that soul may contain gasses, liquids, and organic loads. The components of study under soil mechanics include aspects of rheology in which the interrelation between time, deformation and force are described. Therefore, rheology improves understanding of soil mechanics and goes deeper through acknowledging viscosity of soils in soil mechanics.
The nature of soils influences the movement of soil. For example, rheology describes the flow of matter whether “soft solids”, liquid state or both under conditions that respond with plastic flow instead of applied force elasticity. Therefore, rheology and soil mechanism complements each understanding in understanding the behavior of minerals and soils, and general impact on engineering projects. The movement of fluids is premised on their respective chemical composition, and soil mechanisms address the different components that make soil. Moreover, it addresses the amounts of different components in the soils. Even though rheology can be seen as discussing viscosity, understanding the variables of soil mechanism eludes further knowledge on rheology. Hence, it benefits a civil engineer to understand the extents in which the different techniques/approaches are employed in constructing stable projects.
Affect of soil mineralogy on its application in Civil Engineering
A soil particle can be either a rock fragment or a mineral. A mineral is defined as a chemical compound that occurs in nature ding the geological process; conversely, a rock fragment can be a mineral or a combination of minerals. Minerals are classified as phosphates, carbonates, oxides, aluminates and silicates. These different mineral components influence civil engineering differently. For example, clay contains more of silicate meaning a civil engineer has to address silicate in design and implementation of the projects. The minerals are further formed as either octahedral or tetrahedral, depending on the positioning of atoms. Chemical reaction and other processes create sheets that influence the work of civil engineers. The sheets are brucite, gibbsite, and silica.
In civil engineering, understanding soil composition and the mineral content is important in designing and developing stable projects. The component that forms the soil is mineral indicating that soil mineralogy has a huge impact on civil engineering. Civil engineering employs soil mineralogy to determine the type of structures, the type of foundation and whether the structure would operate effectively. It also addresses the wider impact to the environment and defines the usefulness of the engineering approach employed.
Geology in Civil Engineering
Geology is important in civil engineering because geology is applied in different civil engineering projects. Through geology, a civil engineer has a systematic knowledge of properties and structures of construction materials such as quality of cement, lime and stones. It also enables understanding of nature of rocks including the necessities in dam and tunneling projects, determination of stability of slopes and cuts, and construction of roads.
In addition, through geology, civil engineer obtains knowledge of foundation engineering such as erosion, transportation, the rate of erosion assessment of soil by ground and surface water. The knowledge of ground and surface water is important in harbors, coastal regions, river control, and soil conservation. In addition, the foundation requirements of buildings and dams bridges are linked directly with geology. After the extensive geological survey, a civil engineer determines dam and tunnel construction and location of the bridge. These are heavy infrastructural requirements and affect the geology of locations. Therefore, understanding the geology is important in determining the appropriateness of different structural requirements.
Geological map and water resources are possible through appreciation of geology. It helps in planning engineering projects and other water resources such as discharge capacity, quality, and subsurface lithology. Other geological structures such as fractures, dyke, solution channels, folds, bends, joints, and faults are crucial for civil engineering. It also helps in understanding natural disasters and helps in the pre-geological survey. For example, geology enables understanding drought, flood, and earthquake while also informs on measures to reduce the cost of engineering projects. Therefore, geology plays an important role in civil engineering.
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