Chemistry Concepts Essay Example

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Concepts in Chemistry

A solid is a substance whose atoms, ions, or molecules are so closely intertwined that they are not able to make movement past each other. Various forces of attraction bound solids together and these include dipolar interaction, dispersion forces, as well as inter-molecular forces. Delocalized bonding that involves mobile electrons hold together the metallic solid atoms (Sherman, Alan & Sherman 7).

They have a stable shape. Various attractive forces such as metallic bonding, ionic interaction, intermolecular forces, and covalent bonds bind together the solid’s atoms, ions, and molecules. Delocalized Bonding that involves mobile electrons holds together the metallic solid’s atoms. Ionic solids comprise of anions and cations with the electrostatic forces attracting them (Malone & Leo 45). Examples of solids include a block of salt, metal, a piece of wood, among others.

Amorphous solids are solids that — while solid — have an internal structure that’s not ordered in neat stacks. In fact, they can appear quite chaotic and jumbled. They are formless. They differ from crystalline structure since they are unable to diffract X-ray. But not all amorphous are soft and squishy, glass for example. But, it still fits into our definition. Have a look at its structure. The melting point of the amorphous solid is not sharp, and a temperature range softens them. They undergo conchoidal and occasional breakage. An example is a jelly cliff.

But, what about blocks of ice and chunks of metal, salt? Crystalline solids are much more ordered. Their structure is orderly and is also anisotropic, and this means that their properties for instance refractive index, electrical conductivity, thermal expansion, among others will assume diverse directions. Crystalline solids include potassium nitrate and copper (Malone & Leo 45).

Unlike the crystalline solids, amorphous are also isotropic as well as less rigid. Examples include cellophane, Teflon, naphthalene, fiberglass, and polyvinyl chloride (Sherman, Alan & Sherman 17).

The liquid’s inter-molecular forces have enough strength to ensure the confinement of molecules to a particular volume. Liquids have three main properties namely the capillary action, surface tension, and viscosity (Sherman, Alan & Sherman 7). Surface tension entails a measure of liquid’s resistance to an upsurge in its surface area, and the cause of this property is the striking intermolecular forces present between liquid’s molecules. Capillary action entails the movement of water upward against the gravity’s downward force. The resistance of fluid to flow is known as viscosity.

Phase changes

Three main phase change do occur and an example to demonstrate this is an ice that changes from solid to liquid and finally to gaseous form following an introduction of heat. When exposed to a temperature of 0 degree Celsius, the solid ice start to melt. Heating the liquid at a temperature of 100 degree Celsius changes the liquid ice into water vapour. The entire concept is known as enthalpy of changes (Malone & Leo 57).

Order in Solid

Whereas molecules in liquid and gases forms have a free movement, the molecules, ions, and atoms in the solid state are fixed in one position. Generally, these particles vibrate in their fixed position. Solids can be arranged in various ways including hexagonal and square arrangement (Sherman, Alan & Sherman 27).

X-ray Diffraction

Its use is to determine atoms’ ions’, and molecules’ arrangement in a crystalline structure. Exposure of atoms in an X-ray makes them to behave like tiny sources of X-ray. A unit or lattice cell entails a crystal comprising of enormous number (Malone & Leo 57).

Crystal imperfection: This is basically solid materials containing defects that alter the solid material’s properties.

Ceramics: these materials contains heat treated inorganic compounds. They include pottery, bricks, and glass. Their melting point is usually high at the same time, they are usually hard.

Sample of a metallic bond

Chemistry Concepts

Works Cited

Malone, Leo J. Basic Concepts of Chemistry. New York: Wiley, 2014. Print.

Sherman, Alan, and Sharon Sherman. Essential Concepts of Chemistry. , 2015. Print.