Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction 4
1.1 Background and Purpose 4
1.2 Structure 4
1.3 The scenario 4
1.4 The site plans 4
1.5 The law 4
2.0 System objectives 5
2.1 Internal risk 5
2.2 External risk 5
2.3 Specific objectives 5
3.0 System considerations 5
3.1Technical considerations 6
3.1.1 Digital Cameras 6
3.1.2 Cabling 6
3.1.3 Lighting 6
3.2 Camera installation 6
3.2.1 Cameras A and B 6
3.2.2 Camera C 7
3.2.3 Camera D 7
3.2.4 Camera E 7
3.2.5 Camera F 7
3.2.6 Camera G 7
3.2.7 Camera H 7
3.2.8 Camera I 8
3.2.9 Cameras J, K, L and S 8
3.2.10 Camera M and N 8
3.2.11 Camera O 8
3.2.12 Camera P 8
3.2.13 Camera Q 8
3.2.14 Camera R 9
3.3 Operating room 9
3.4 Non-technical features 9
3.4.1 Signage 9
3.4.2 Employee policy 10
4.0 Intrusion detection 10
4.1 Unauthorized pedestrians 10
4.2 Unauthorized vehicles 10
4.3 Onsite monitoring 10
4.4 Intrusion detection issues 11
5.0 Response 11
5.1 Emergency response 11
5.2 Post-incident response 11
6.0 Conclusion 11
7.0 References 12
8.0 Appendix 14
8.1 Site plans 14
8.2 Camera location and design of a typical CCTV system. 15
1.1 Background and Purpose
CCTV is a surveillance in which video cameras are connected to a loop or a closed circuit (Cieszynski, 2007). The CCTV has cameras which take images of all activities within the facility. The images taken are then sent to monitor from which it can be observed by the security personnel. The aim of this report is to come up with a proposed CCTV system for a new gold storage facility in Western Australia.
The report will explain how this project is useful to the new facility as well as its objective that help in minimizing the risks involved. The report also has a site plan which to mark the areas of concern, the site plans, the scenario and formulas involved. Moreover, the concept has intrusion detection systems that can identify vehicle number plates as well as individuals.
1.3 The scenario
The company that has been given the mandate to design and describe the proposed concept for the facility is Dakheel Surveillance Pty Ltd.
1.4 The site plans
The site plan consists of a spacious car park, a workshop and an office that store gold next to the vault. Appendix A provides the site, and it is highly fenced or rather protected for security purposes.
1.5 The law
There are laws governing the installation of CCTV systems. It has to be legally binding. The Surveillance Devices Act of 1998 regulates the use of CCTV in Western Australia. There are other Acts such as the Security and Related Activities (controls) Act 1996 and the Security and Related Activities (controls) regulations 1997 that regulates the private security activities (Victorian Law Reform Commission, 2008).
2.0 System objectives
The office concerned with security matters recommends a simple planning process and implementation process, that cannot be simple everyone to understand (Damjanovski, 2005). The main target issues were a risk of theft, inadequate CCTV systems, and unlawful intrusion into the facility.
2.1 Internal risk
The world internal means within the facility, therefore these risks are always causes by the staff. In a certain case in Western Australia, it was reported that internal risks are much more important than external risks (Fischer, Robert, Halibozek, Edward, Walters & David, 2013).
2.2 External risk
The external risks are those that are from outside the facility. These are risks caused by intruders with unauthorized access with criminal intentions (Fischer, Robert, Halibozek, Edward, Walters & David, 2013).
2.3 Specific objectives
The system has the objective of recovering from the expenses that was caused by theft and other malicious activities within a short period of time. Most importantly, the system will improve greater staff productivity and their well being (Griffiths, 2015).
3.0 System considerations
The digital cameras in the plan were considered based on their surveillance capacity. They include vandal resistant, indoor, outdoor, bullet, dome, pan-tilt-zoom, and covert and camera color. Also, some considerations such as the accessed risk and the probability of the risk of occurring, the performance in identifying people entering and exiting the facility were also considered.
3.1.1 Digital Cameras
The performance of the system was further enhanced by internet concepts such as the Internet Protocol or Local Area Network cameras (Victorian Law Reform Commission, 2008). The digital cameras are efficient as they produce quality images independent of distances (Cohen, 2009).
Cables are used to transfer images or information from one point to another. Proper cabling that facilitated quality pictures in the monitoring system were employed to enhance the functionality of the system.
Lighting is the provision of lights to a specific area of concern. The installation of lights in the gold storage facility helps the cameras to capture images during the night, in the case of mist or fog and during rainy seasons (Harwood, 2008). The cameras that maximize the daylight were appropriate for the dawn and dusk since they minimize usage of the artificial lighting. Also, lighting that moves will be used to capture the movement of persons during low light conditions (Office of Crime Prevention, 2009).
3.2 Camera installation
Camera installation is usually based on the principles of detect, recognize and identify. These principle pose an influence in the process of camera has influenced camera selection and installation (Griffiths, 2015). The factors that were also considered during the installation are the height and width, lens type, distance and position of the cameras. Different cameras have been chosen to perform the various functions of identification, recognition and identification depending on the different levels of risk in the facility.
3.2.1 Cameras A and B
Camera A and B are located between the workshop and gold storage office. They were positioned to monitor the open space between the two structures. They should have sensors of a ½ inch with the ration 4:3. They should also measure 52.0mm vertical, 79.0mm horizontal and the height of 3.0 m height. Being an open high-risk area, the cameras should facilitate effective surveillance being able to detect and recognize suspicious activities. They should also be capable of making alerts to the control room through installed programs via the internet.
3.2.2 Camera C
The camera is located at the fence door to monitor the door near the auto sliding gate. It should have an Image sensor of a ¼ inch with the focal length of the lens being 7mm. It captures the identities of the staff that pass through the gate as it is activated by the presentation of an employment ID.
3.2.3 Camera D
The camera D will be located at the reception entry door to recognize people entering through the door. A color camera coupled –charged with an image sensor of 1/3 inch will be appropriate. It should have a lens of focal length 3mm and mounted on the wall 2.7m high.
3.2.4 Camera E
Considering this area as the riskiest part of the facility, the CCTV was monitored and controlled from the control room. The camera should have an image sensor of 1/3 inch and a focal length of 3mm. The FOV of 77.0 vertical, 61.0 horizontal and a 2.7 height was designed for the camera. It will recognize and identify staff accessing the control room.
3.2.5 Camera F
Camera F is located in the office area. A color camera, coupled-charged with an image sensor of a ½ inch will be appropriate this area being a less risk part of the facility. The FOV of 51.0 vertical and 65.0 horizontal mounted on a height of 2.7m will work well for the office.
3.2.6 Camera G
Camera G is located in the parking zone. The externally charged camera is placed a strategic point of the reception room, and it facilitates detection and monitoring in the parking zone. The camera will be used to monitor activities involving visitors, contractors, and staff members.
3.2.7 Camera H
This camera is placed at the auto sliding gate, and it restricts intruders from entering the gold storage office. After identifying the individual or vehicle, the camera signals the gate to open.
3.2.8 Camera I
The camera is positioned at the main entry which is considered important for enhancing effective identification and monitoring of people and number plates and other risk intrusions (Ratcliffe, 2006).Digital cameras allow the identification of unregistered and registered vehicles.
3.2.9 Cameras J, K, L and S
These four cameras are placed at the corners of the fence to enable monitoring in and out of the fence. Camera G is located at a corner behind the workshop, and the other cameras are placed in the other corners such that each camera monitors each corner of the fence effectively. The cameras help in monitoring and detecting the intrusion stages to help the responsible team prepare for the incidence.
3.2.10 Camera M and N
The cameras have a wide lens and will be placed in the room to channel their focus to the door. This positioning will cause overlapping which covers their blind spot. The color camera with coupled-charged effects will be used since these cameras will be facing he entrances. M and N cameras are mainly used for recording, monitoring, and recognizing suspicious activities in the workshop.
3.2.11 Camera O
It is positioned in the workshop corner facing the door to keep a record of the movements. A coupled-charged camera with an image sensor of 1/3 is to be used, and the lens length is 4mm with a 3.4 height. The features facilitate recognition of unauthorized activities in the office.
3.2.12 Camera P
It is placed in the gold storage office, and the camera is coupled-charged with a ratio of 4:3. The main aim of the camera is to record the incidences and recognize the operational activities (Self, 2010).
3.2.13 Camera Q
The camera is placed in the high-risk area of the gold storage office, and it has a 10mm focal length which enhances the identification and intrusion. The camera has a built-in switch that is designed to activate the IR-motion detector and the camera to facilitate the detection of any movement. The visual and audible alarm in the internet communication system alerts operators in the room and the management of personnel through their phones.
3.2.14 Camera R
The camera will be positioned on the gold storage office’s ceiling. Camera R is placed on the ceiling of the room with a field view. The main purpose of the camera is to prevent theft of processed items and to identify illegal activities in the areas used for processing. The camera also provides evidence by doing some functions of a visible deterrent.
3.3 Operating room
It is recommended that an operator should not monitor more many screens at the same time. This is because he/she will miss out some important activities that need to be of concern. In the proposed design we have 19 cameras and two LCD monitor. The control should b ergonomic for the user (Kruegle, 2007).
3.4 Non-technical features
It’s an important part of the system. The sign should be placed at strategic position where anyone can easily notice. It best serves to deter unauthorized system site entries.
Figure 1: Recommend CCTV Signage wording (Office of Crime Prevention, 2009)
3.4.2 Employee policy
There is the need to inform all the staff and persons regularly visiting the facility that CCTV operates 24hrs a day. This is meant to prevent any intentional crime that might occur. The information should also be available in places that do not usually have such surveillance (Office of Crime Prevention, 2009).
4.0 Intrusion detection
The cameras are capable of detecting intrusions and identify individuals and vehicles number plates. The design is to ensure achievement of best image resolutions (Harwood, 2008). The choice of the cameras based on their sensor elements and lens depending on their locations or expected level of performance was necessary to meet the achievement. The design also recommended the CCTV to be maintained and checked regularly for its effectiveness.
4.1 Unauthorized pedestrians
These are individuals who are not authorized to access the gold storage facility. The CCTV has an alert function that informs the control room and the concerned personnel immediately unauthorized entry occur into the facility. The communication of the identified intruders enabling instant action is made possible by the connection of the CCTV system with the installed programs via internet.
4.2 Unauthorized vehicles
Additionally, the CCTV system will be in a position to identify the vehicle number plate of staff members. In case a strange vehicle gets in, the system also alerts the security personnel.
4.3 Onsite monitoring
The design has included the alert functions which are facilitated by the internet and installed programs to transfer signals to the security personnel and management members. The CCTV is well designed to facilitate video recording and quality clear images for the security personnel. The signals of CCTV systems being broadband, copper cables were used. Finally, the monitoring of the 19 cameras was to be done by LCD monitors.
4.4 Intrusion detection issues
Occasionally, the alert systems may give false alarms triggered by heavy vibrations or animals that pass closely along the perimeter fence (Kamien, 2006).
5.1 Emergency response
In case an emergency response in desired an emergency relay should be sent to the police station around the facility (Cohen, 2009).The Perth Minth- based alarm system will communicate to the WA police located a few kilometers away and can take 7-8 minutes to respond.
5.2 Post-incident response
It is recommended to have backups therefore; data and information from the system will be stored in a device for at least 28 days (Office of Crime Prevention, 2009).
In conclusion, the proposed system is a high technology in cooperating programmable systems and the internet to facilitate recognition, identification of intruders and monitoring staff operations activities. Nevertheless, it integrates modern technology, cabling, monitors, lighting and digital cameras to meet its functions and purpose. Finally, it recommends that the operators of the system be well trained.
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Security and Related Activities (Control) Act 1996 (WA)
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Victorian Law Reform Commission. (2008). Surveillance in Public Places: Final Report 18. Retrieved from http://www.lawreform.vic.gov.au/sites/default/files/Surveillance_final_report.pdf
8.1 Site plans
8.2 Camera location and design of a typical CCTV system.