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4Risk Theme Discussion





The Chile Tsunami occurred on the 27th February 2010. The measure of the quake was recorded at 8.8, and this led to the occurrence of a devastating tsunami. Tsunami is also regarded as seismic sea wave which is a series of waves caused by displacement of large water bodies. It frequently occurs in large water bodies such as lakes or oceans. As well, it is imperative to note that tsunamis can cause massive devastation once it reaches the land surface. One of the most common causes of the tsunami is the disturbances that affect the water. This could be an occurrence such as a landslide or volcanic eruption. Another cause though rare is a nuclear explosion. Tsunami is one of the most hazardous natural calamities that are hazardous. One of the most known causes of the tsunami is the earthquake whereby the earth crust shifts suddenly and is accompanied by the release of energy. The released energy leads to the destructions in the environment such as damage of property. One of the riskiest aspects of the tsunami is that it leads to loss of life. In the major occurrence of the tsunami, the number of fatalities can grow from hundreds to thousands. This is dependent on how fast the emergency services of the nation are in a position to respond effectively. For instance, the time that it takes to respond to such an occurrence is crucial in minimizing the risks associated with tsunamis. Governments and other agencies should have the necessary personnel and equipment to respond with immediacy. As such, the risk related to the disaster can be mitigated effectively. Tsunamis also are the primary cause of coastal erosion whereby water washes away the vegetation. In many cases, the power of water washes away the shoreline which is tough to reestablish. In the long run property of excessive amount is destroyed, damaged, and demolished.


The disaster of discussion in this work is tsunami which is mainly caused by earthquakes. Most of the regions that have experienced tsunami have encountered various negative challenges. The primary risk associated with the tsunami is that it leads to the loss of thousands of lives. As well, it leads to the massive destruction of property in the regions affected. Furthermore, it substantially leads to the erosion of coastal area which makes it tough to reestablish. The case study considers five different occurrences of tsunamis that are still remembered in the history. The first is the Chile tsunami that occurred on the 27th February 2010. Secondly, Samoa tsunami occurred on the 29th September 2009. Thirdly, Solomon Island tsunami occurred on the 2nd April 2007. The fourth occurrence is the Indian Ocean tsunami that occurred on the 26th December 2004 and finally, Papua New Guinea tsunami that occurred on the 17th July 1998. There are three main categories of the impacts of tsunami namely; social, environmental, and economic impacts. As well, there could be other effects of the tsunami disaster that are considered as a risk to the society as a whole.

Risk Theme Discussion

The three most important categories of the tsunami are the focus of discussion in this section. Firstly, there is a substantial need to discuss the social effects whereby human loss is the most shared and devastating impact of the tsunami. The tsunamis caused by earthquakes have claimed several lives across the globe. This has led to various implications in the long run. Firstly, this has left to the decrease in population. Tsunami has claimed thousands of lives in the previous years. This is a clear indication that tsunami is a substantial risk to the world population. In addition to the above, tsunami led to the destruction and damage of properties. As a result, several people have been left homeless in the affected regions. As such, this has led to the increased number of people living in refugee camps in the affected areas. Another social effect of the tsunami is that it is risky for the health. In many cases, several people are severely injured if they survive death. This calls for the need to spend a lot of money by governments and other emergency agencies in trying to rescue the victims. There are two types of rehabilitation programs that need to be offered to ensure that the victims are integrated back to the normal life. Firstly, the victims need physical rehabilitation such that they feel they are still normal disabilities caused by the injuries. As well, there is a substantial need to give these victims mental rehabilitation, with an objective of ensuring that they are not left depressed after the disaster (Huber at el., 2008).

Secondly, it is crucial comprehending that tsunami is very risky to the environment. It causes various implications that contribute to the damaging of the environment. One of the most common damage is the destruction of the coastal region erosion. During the occurrence of a tsunami, the power of the water carries away the shoreline of the coastal region. In the process, the impact created is difficult to reestablish. As such, anything that is on the shoreline of a tsunami prone area is very risky. The other effect is that tsunami cause water pollution. For instance, when there is a company within the coast the damages caused leads to the pouring of chemicals. Most of the chemicals end up in the water bodies leading to the pollution. In severe cases, this leads to the destruction of ecosystem such as aquatic life. On the other hand, tsunami leads to the pollution of the air. In many cases, the damage leads to release of poisonous gases to the air. As such, this has contributed to the destruction of the ozone layer. In the long run this has led to increase leading to the increase in climate change globally. Research reveals that air pollution has led to an increase in one degree Celsius of temperature on average across the globe. This is a clear indication that tsunami disaster is a risk to both water and air and needs to be mitigated.

Finally, tsunami affects a nation or affected region economically. Firstly, the most affected are the government and its urgencies. In the event such disasters occur the government is the primary institution to respond to rescuing people. To do this, they must use skilled personnel and effective machinery which definitely are very costly to fund. As such, the government will end up spending a lot of resources that could have been used in other projects. Secondly, tsunami leads to destruction of industries leading to the loss of job opportunities. As such, most people who will survive the disaster will remain jobless for a long period. Another implication is that income generation will go down substantially. For instance when people who are supposed to generate income and taxes to the nation die the whole nation’s economy falls. As such, tsunami is among the disasters that lead to economic downfall. Lastly, in the occurrence of such disasters various businesses are lost. This is the main reason why businesses in disaster prone areas consider tsunami as one of the most risky aspects of their operations. Most companies reduce their investments for fear that they may not realize full returns. However, to solve this challenge, there is a substantial need for the businesses to take insurance covers on such disasters. This will play a vital role in recovering the losses in case the disaster strikes.


Tsunami is one of the most hazardous disasters in the world. The impacts it causes can be summarized into three main categories namely; social, economic, and environmental. In the social effects, it leads to the loss of thousands of humans. In the past years, areas affected by this disaster have witnessed the massive human loss. On the other hand, it also leads to the destruction of large property. As such, this has led to the increase in the number of homeless people seeking shelter in camps. On the environmental effects, tsunami leads to pollution of water. Chemicals from nearby destroyed industries end up in the water bodies. This leads to the death of aquatic life such as fish. In addition to the above, it leads to the pollution of air through the release of poisonous gases to the environment which has substantially contributed to the climate changes. Finally, on the economic effects, the government is the primary party affected. The government spends a lot of resources to rescue people and property when such disasters occur. As well, most industries in the coast are affected leading to unemployment. In the long run, the economy of the region affected or the overall country falls extensively depending on the nature and extent of the disaster.


There are several ways to respond to the catastrophe in case it occurs. Firstly, the government should have the necessary skilled personnel and equipment to rescue people and property. As people are swiftly rescued, effects such as water and air pollution as well are reduced. Secondly, there is a need to create awareness on the need to avoid the disaster. People should be told to avoid residing in the tsunami prone areas to reduce the effects if it occurs. In addition to the above, industries should not be constructed in the coastal regions. On the other hand, there is a substantial need to install warning systems that warn people of an impending disaster. As such, people should be able to leave such places before the catastrophe hits. Finally, to respond effectively to tsunami the government should set aside funds to be used in case the disaster hits. Such funds should be utilized in treating the injured, providing shelter to the victims, and also rehabilitating them.


Huber, R., Langsaeter, T., Eggenhofer, P., Freire, F., Grilo, A., Grisogno, A. M., & Titze, K. (2008). The Indian Ocean tsunami: a case study investigation by NATO RTO SAS-065 part two: the case of Aceh and North Sumatra.