Case Study

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 Main Idea/Topic

Mitchell, you did not provide a summary of Kevin’s strengths in your fourth section. Because of this, your readers will not know what strengths can help in creating a plan of action for Kevin. Currently, your section there focuses on Kevin’s needs when it comes to understanding, interacting, and learning. Without the discussion of the strengths, the readers will think that there are more issues in Kevin that will be the focus for the plans. There is nothing to support the plans to help the needs. What are Kevin’s strengths? What are aspects of Kevin that will prove to be useful for your plans? What traits will help Kevin in his development? How are they strengths? These questions will help in proving a summary of the strengths.

*Mitchell 7546575 has requested that you respond to the Organisation:

Some of your opening sentences do not introduce the discussion in the sections of your case study to your readers. This can make it harder for your readers to know what to prepare for in the sections. Here is your opening sentence for your section on his family background:

Kevin is the third born child in a family of four children.

Your opening statement above tells the readers how Kevin is the third child, but this is not the focus of your section there. You should focus your opening sentence on introducing the readers to the section. For example, a section on the causes of social anxiety would have this opening sentence:

Firstly, there are many causes of social anxiety like genes, environment, and trauma.

Because the opening statement here highlights the causes, the readers will know what the section will be about. What will you discuss in your Summary of Home Background? What will you talk about in that section? Check your other opening statements and make sure that they introduce the readers to the sections.

:Summary action/s to be taken in reference to the strengths and needs The discussion lacks examples, Mitchell. Examples are used to illustrate your point better. By using examples, the readers can clearly understand the discussion. Here’s an excerpt from *Mitchell 7546575 has requested that you respond to the Content Development:

The IEP will form a detailed framework which will be used to identify key intervention areas in the academic performance of Kevin, specific steps that need to be taken and a continuous assessment of his progress over the course of time.

In this excerpt, you mentioned that the IEP can be used to care for your case subject by identifying key intervention areas in academic performance and continuous assessment. However, it’s not clear yet how the IEP will do this in terms on addressing the needs you identified. Adding examples of how the IEP would apply to the case would help clarify the discussion. For example:

  • In terms of communication needs, how would the IEP help address this?

  • How would you use IEP to address his need for social interaction?

.Powerful Body ParagraphsNow, go back to the paragraph, Mitchell. How would you improve the discussion? You can do this by adding an example to the paragraphs to show how IEP would help address the strengths and needs of your case subject. For additional help on this, please study this lesson on

Summary of the strengths, needs etc.:: Some areas of the discussion lacks evidence, Mitchell. Adding evidence to the discussion would help validate and support your ideas. For instance, here’s an excerpt from Use of Resources

The second need of Kevin is related to social skills. Because of his condition, Kevin is unable to initiate, develop and foster positive interpersonal relationships with his peers. He tends to be shy, moody and withdrawn. A limitation in social skills is also making it difficult for him to bond and interact with others during outdoor activities.

Here, you identified social skills as a need for your subject. However, you did not add evidence to support your observations. Evidence would help you validate your ideas and observations. In searching for appropriate evidence, consider the following:

  • How do persons with intellectual disability act in social situations?

  • How does their disability hinder social interaction?

  • Why is social skill a need for a person with intellectual disability?

Let’s go back to the paragraph, Mitchell. Using the guidelines, add evidence to this discussion. As you revise, remember to add evidence to the discussion to help validate and support your ideas and observation.

he paper does not have a concluding paragraph yet. A conclusion will give the readers a wrap up of the paper and a sense of closure. Let’s look at the last body paragraph:TIntroduction/Conclusion:

It will also be necessary to adjust the cueing and prompting methods that are used in the course of communicating with Kevin. This will entail allowing him more time to reflect on and respond to instructions and questions. Lastly, extensive review and feedback activities will be used to help Kevin access all areas of learning. Importantly, all these adjustments will be carried out by the teacher. 

The last paragraph is still part of the discussion, Mitchell. This is not a conclusion yet. Here, you talk about plan adjustments and inclusive strategies to Kevin’s case. To write the conclusion, consider the following:

  • What is the case of your chosen subject, and what are the needs/problems that you identified?

  • How do you plan to address his needs/problems?

Let’s go back to the conclusion, Mitchell. Using the questions as guide, how would you improve the conclusion? You can do this by writing a conclusion that recaps the ideas you discussed about how people deal with obesity. This would help the readers remember the discussion and give your paper a sense of closure.

EDC 251: Individual Case Study

Name of Student: Kevin White

March 2006thDate of Birth: 8

Age: 10 years

Class: Year 3 (Primary School)

  1. Description of the chosen disability

Foreman and Arthur-Kelly (2014, p. 5) note that the condition results in a situation in which the affected individuals experience marked difficulties in thinking, reasoning and solving problems in real life scenarios.[What are the areas affected by this disability? Providing more background information on the disability will help your readers understand it better.] Kevin White has intellectual and developmental disability. This condition is commonly referred to as intellectual disability. In medical terms, intellectual disability is defined as a form of intellectual developmental disorder in individuals which begins when the individuals are in their developmental stages of life and affects their mental, social and communication areas of the lives of the affected individuals (Mash & Wolfe, 2015, p. 131). ).

[What is the normal or standard IQ for children of his age? What does his IQ indicate?]What is important to note is that iIntellectual disability causes severe limitations in the form of intellectual functioning and overall adaptive behaviour in the affected individuals. In practice, these conditions form the basic criteria that are used to determine whether or not a child has this form of disability and, if this is the case, the extent to which the child is affected by the disability (Katz & Lazcano-Ponce, 2008, p. 133). Affected children usually show a significantly low level of intellectual ability in the form of the capacity to reason, make judgements, solve problems or think in abstract terms (Foreman & Arthur-Kelly, 2014, p. 5). In the case of Kevin, his intellectual functioning capability was shown to be relatively low. This was confirmed by the results of an individualised Intelligence Quotient (IQ) test that he underwent some time back. The results indicated that he has an IQ score of 68. According to Mash and Wolfe (2015, p. 130), the average IQ of 10 to 11 year olds is 81. Therefore, Kevin’s score of 68 is below average. The below average score shows that his intellectual capability is lower than that of his age mates.

In addition to this, Kevin has also demonstrated that he is not able to function perfectly within the school and home environments. A low level of adaptive functioning is another important symptom of intellectual disability. Failure to adapt to different conditions makes an individual who is affected by this disability to find it difficult to interact with others, communicate properly or even successfully carry out normal day-to-day activities (Mash & Wolfe, 2015, p. 131). What this implies is that affected children need varying levels of assistance in order to function successfully in the society.

The symptoms that Kevin shows indicate that his form of disability falls under the category of mild intellectual disability. According to Handen (2009, p. 555) the mild form of intellectual disability is characterised by the affected individuals showing relatively low levels of intellectual functioning ability (showed by an IQ score range of 55 to 69) as compared with those affected by the more severe forms of the condition. It is noted that this form of intellectual disability is the most common one among the individuals who form the 3% of the Australian population that has intellectual disability (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2008, p. 7).

  1. Summary of the home background

There is nothing unusual about the family background of Kevin. HKevin is the third born child in a family of four children. He is the only son in the family. His parents run a small family business, an occupation they have kept since they got married about 16 years ago. According to Kevin’s parents, all the other children in the family are perfectly normal. The eldest child in the family is aged 15 years old while the second born girl is aged 12. The last born girl in the family is aged 6.

According to his parents, Kevin started exhibiting signs of the condition when he was still a child. His mother, a trained nurse, was quick to notice that Kevin was lagging behind in development faster than her dad did. She says that at first, it was difficult to see all the signs of the then baby Kevin having a low level of mental and behavioural functioning capacity. For example, she remembers how the then baby Kevin took too long before he finally started talking. This was not a reason serious enough to make her father worried but to her mother, it was an important sign.

The boy was then taken to the family doctor for a clinical examination. This was followed by several visits to a practising psychiatrist. It was after all these that it was confirmed that the boy has a mild form of intellectual disability.What did Kevin’s teacher notice about him, Mitchell? Add a brief detail here so that the readers can identify what prompted the parents to consult a physician about his condition.][The family was convinced of Kevin’s condition when he joined school. It was after about a year that the teacher contacted them and discussed Kevin’s condition in detail. The teacher noted that the performance of Kevin in academic work was way below average and that Kevin was experiencing difficulties communicating properly and following instructions.

According to the parents, it is difficult to detect that Kevin has mild intellectual disability. Observing his behaviour when the boy is back at home, one can find it difficult to spot any issue that shows that he does not function properly in terms of making decisions or interacting with others. However, when he is in specific situations, it is possible for one to see that he indeed has a mild level of intellectual disability. There are certain situations in which he is unable to function as it would be expected of a 9-year-old boy.

  1. Summary of the school background

The following is a summary of the school background of Kevin. It is based on specific aspects that define school life in general and specific information about how Kevin performs in relation to the aspects. The first one is about school attendance. In general, there are no complaints about the manner in which Kevin attends school. According to his teacher and parents, Kevin’s school performance is normal. His parents reported that, if anything, Kevin always looks forward to going to school.

What should be noted is that this observation is based on a comparison of Kevin’s performance in his class work with his peers’ performance. “Throughout” and “so far” are both adverbs that imply the same meaning, Mitchell. Using both words in the sentence makes it redundant. How should you revise?][The second issue is related to Kevin’s academic performance. School records indicate that in general, the academic performance of Kevin ranges from slightly below average to average. However, it is worth mentioning one thing at this point: Kevin has shown limited ability to grasp basic arithmetic and reading concepts. Throughout his school life so far, he has taken a considerably longer time to grasp basic arithmetic operations as well as understand basic reading patterns.

Interestingly, Kevin does not show a lot of interest in physical activity. Reports from his teachers indicate that he does not favour any form of physical activity. If anything, his interests lie in academic work, in which his performance is slightly limited.

As it would be expected, the social skills of Kevin remain below the level that is exhibited by his peers. Kevin does not interact with his peers sufficiently. This is seen in his slightly limited ability to communicate his thoughts and feelings, his limited capacity to make quick judgement when interacting with others and his general lack of interest in outdoor activities.

  1. Summary of the strengths, needs etc

The following is a summary of the specific strengths and needs of Kevin. They are based on areas in which he has shown various levels of limitation and strength in the school and home environment. The first need is related to communication. From reports gathered from parents and the teachers of Kevin, it can be seen that he finds it difficult to comprehend complex instructions. However, when given more time, Kevin is able to comprehend and follow instructions comfortably. It is because of this that he finds it difficult to follow specific instructions when he is within the school environment. However, this need has not been clearly observed when he is at home. The most plausible explanation for this is that Kevin finds the home environment conducive and favourable to him because his parents and sisters understand his disability and, therefore, communicate with him in the right manner. However, given that the school environment is characterised by the need for students to follow instructions and rules, Kevin finds it difficult to follow those instructions.

The second need of Kevin is related to social skills. Because of his condition, Kevin is unable to initiate, develop and foster positive interpersonal relationships with his peers. He tends to be shy, moody and withdrawn. A limitation in social skills is also making it difficult for him to bond and interact with others during outdoor activities. However, observation results indicate that Kevin enjoys positive reinforcement and is comfortable in an environment in which he is appreciated and understood.

Therefore, Kevin needs assistance in order for him to perform well in arithmetic and reading assignments. Similarly, he needs help when he is required to handle typical classroom assignments. This trend is also seen when he is doing academic tests in that he fails to complete his tests in time. However, it has been observed that Kevin has a keen interest in academic work. He enjoys working on his assignments, even though he takes very long to complete them. It is based on his interest in academic work in general that he can be helped. [What is the importance of addressing this need? How can addressing this benefit Kevin?]The third need is related to his academic performance. The performance of Kevin in reading and arithmetic assignments is below average.

  1. Summary action/s to be taken in reference to the strengths and needs

The proposed actions are based on the strengths and needs of Kevin. For example, The basis of the actions to be taken is that Kevin has shown considerable interest in academics. This means that the process of ensuring that his needs are taken care within the general classroom environment will be relatively easy. The second one is related to the growing trend in Australia in which classrooms are becoming diverse. It is observed that following the inclusion of children of diverse backgrounds as well as those who have different types of disabilities in mainstream classrooms in Australia, the need for teachers to cater for the special needs of such students has considerably increased (Foreman & Arthur-Kelly, 2014, p. 5; Hemmings & Woodcock, 2011, p. 103).

The following actions will be taken to address the specific needs of Kevin. The first set of actions are based on the need to address the below average level of academic performance of Kevin. In relation to this issue, one of the things that will be done will be to prepare an Individualised Education Plan (IEP) for Kevin. The IEP will form a detailed framework which will be used to identify key intervention areas in the academic performance of Kevin, specific steps that need to be taken and a continuous assessment of his progress over the course of time. Second, individualised instructions will be given in order to make sure that Kevin understands specific instructions in class and is given sufficient time to complete his tasks. This will be combined with provision of assignments that suit the ability of Kevin.

Secondly, specific alternative goals and procedures will be used to help Kevin achieve the social skills that all his other peers will be required to achieve. It has been noted that Kevin likes positive reinforcements from the people around him. Therefore, it is expected that This means that it will be necessary to the use of more positive reinforcements will help him to develop his social, intellectual and communication functioning. for Kevin than it is the case with the other students.[What is the importance of this? How can this help Kevin and his social skills? You should explain the significance of the plans.] The second set of actions is related to the need to address the limited social skills that Kevin has exhibited. One of the things that will be done is to ensure that Kevin is offered a preferential sitting arrangement to ensure that he is close to the teacher and in the company of fellow students who can help him develop his social skills. Since Kevin finds it easy to interact with others when he is comfortable, it is expected that closeness to the teacher and learners with whom Ihe can interact with will help to improve his social skills.

The third set of actions is related to the need to help Kevin communicate and interact with others better. For example to repeat instructions to him, in addition to ensuring that the instructions are clear and simple. Repeating instructions will not only ensure that the instructions are clear, but also help to give Kevinhim adequate time to process the instructions and respond to them.

  1. Discuss future planning

There are several issues that will be important during the process of developing the Individualised Education Programme (IEP) for Kevin. These are discussed as follows. The first one is based on the specific needs of the student and the shared belief that he can actually successfully learn if given the necessary support. It is noted that practitioners and educators are of the belief that children with mild disability can perform well in school and lead independent and successful lives if they are provided with specific supporting conditions (Westwood, 2015, p. 14). Therefore, the specific needs of Kevin will determine the targets that will be set for him in the IEP and the approach that will be used to help him achieve them.

In general, Kevin likes academic work and enjoys when he is congratulated for small achievements in academic work. On the other hand, he dislikes outdoor activities and other situations in which he is required to interact with a large number of his peers. This information will be used to determine the approach that will be taken in addressing his special needs.

In general, it is observed that specific disabled students have different types and degrees of social, communication, physical and even intellectual needs (King, Cathers, Polgar, MacKinnon & Havens, 2000, p. 734; Rasid & Nonis, 2015, p. 16). Hence, for teachers and other individuals concerned to ensure that the individuals are fully included in schools, it is necessary to use various approaches and techniques (Nonis, Sing & Jernice, 2011, p. 3). In this case, the techniques and approaches that will be used in Kevin’s IEP will be based on the resources that are available for him, the nature of his school environment and his specific needs.

7: Plan adjustments and inclusive strategies

What does this mean, Mitchell, and how does would these methods ultimately help children with intellectual disability? Explain the evidence that you use so that the readers understand what they mean and how they relate to your plan.][On the other hand, adaptation of the curriculum takes the form of enriching the content of the curriculum of adapting it in order to address the needs of gifted and special needs students respectively (Foreman & Arthur-Kelly, 2014, p. 35). It is noted that modification of the classroom environment is based on the need of the school leadership to create an environment and policies that support inclusive education (Foreman & Arthur-Kelly, 2014, p. 35). Modifying the school policies to support inclusive education means that teachers and school administrators should make all areas of learning and other school activities accessible to learners with special needs. [What does this mean? What does this imply on modification of school environment? How do they create a social, physical, and academic environment that addresses needs? Explaining borrowed information helps the readers understand them better.] There are two main strategies that are used to achieve inclusive education: modification of the classroom environment and adaptation of the curriculum (Foreman & Arthur-Kelly, 2014, p. 34). On one hand, modification of the school environment entails creating the social, physical and academic environment within the classroom in such a manner that the needs of different learners are addressed (Foreman & Arthur-Kelly, 2014, p. 34). Modifying the classroom environment means that a teacher can alter the pace of and approach to teaching in order to cater for the needs of children with special needs.

Both strategies will be used in the case of helping Kevin to successfully access all the areas of learning. These will take the form of different types of adjustments which will be made within the classroom and in the way that the specific aspects of the curriculum will be applied in his case. For example, it will be necessary to adapt instructions that are given to the student as well as constantly create opportunities for communication and interaction. This adjustment will be used to help Kevin to improve his communication as well as social skills.

It will also be necessary to adjust the cueing and prompting methods that are used in the course of communicating with Kevin. This will entail allowing him more time to reflect on and respond to instructions and questions. Lastly, extensive review and feedback activities will be used to help Kevin access all areas of learning. Importantly, all these adjustments will be carried out by the teacher. The essence of this is that a teacher who is handling an inclusive class is better placed to attend to the special needs of some students by relying on experience and observation (Cook & Cook, 2011, p. 73). Hence, it is expected that given the history of Kevin, these adjustments will be effective in helping him access all areas of learning.

8: Plan learning goals – long term (annual) and short term

Individual Educational Plan

Name: Kevin White

Age: 10 years

Development area: communication

Class: Year 3


Key activities

Intervention measures

Progress Assessment

Long-term objective: Kevin will be able to demonstrate a level of communication ability that is similar to that of his peers. This will be based on the following short-term objectives: to be able to fully participate in classroom discussions, to provide appropriate answers to direct questions and to make appropriate contributions to discussions

Kevin will be asked to participate in specific classroom discussions

Teacher will record the progress of Kevin

Progress to be assessed 3 times during the year

Kevin will be given more time to express himself in the course of the discussion

Teacher will provide feedback and positive reinforcements

Kevin will be asked to speak out during outdoor activities

Teacher will organise and maintain specific engagement opportunities with Kevin

Kevin will be put in specific groups that foster his ability to communicate and interact with others

[What is the condition that you discussed again? What are the needs that should be addressed? What are your plans again? Creating a conclusion will tie your whole essay together.]


In conclusion, this case study is focused on Kevin, an 11-year- old boy affected by a mild form of intellectual disability. The effect of this condition is evident in the way Kevin communicates and interacts with others and performs in his academic work. His below average performance in academic work, difficulty in communicating properly and failure to fully interact with others are the key needs that need to be addressed. In addressing these needs, the focus is on Kevin’shis strengths, key among them being his interest in academic work, liking for positive reinforcement and willingness to interact with others when he is in an environment that he considers friendly. Therefore, the essence of the plan is to put Kevin close to the teacher and friendly students, allow him more time to understand and communicate, and give him additional assistance and time to complete his assignments in class.


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(2), 71-82.47,Journal of Special EducationCook, B.G.,& Cook, S. C. (2013). Unravelling evidence based practices in special education.

(4th ed). South Melbourne, Victoria: Cengage Learning. Inclusion in actionForeman, P.,& Arthur-Kelly, M. (2014).

(pp. 551–597). London: Guilford Press. Assessment of childhood disordersHanden, B. L. (2009). Intellectual disability (mental retardation). In E. J. Mash & R. B. Russel (Eds),

(2), 103-116.Australasian Journal of Special Education,35Hemmings, B., & Woodcock, S. (2011). Pre-service teachers’ views of inclusive education: a content analysis.

(2), 132-141.Salud Publica Mex, 50Katz, G.,& Laczano-Ponce, E. (2008). Intellectual disability: Definition, etiological factors, classification, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis,

(6), 734-749. Qualitative Health Research, 10King, G. A., Cathers, T., Polgar, J. M., MacKinnon, E.,& Havens, L. (2000). Success in life for older adolescents with cerebral palsy.

Mason: Cengage Learning.Abnormal child psychology. Mash, E. J.,& Wolfe, D. A. (2015).

(4), 383-396. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 20McKay, L. (2016). Beginning teachers and inclusive education; frustrations, dilemmas and growth.

(2), 1-14.26, International Journal of Special EducationNonis, K., Sing, T.,& Jernice, Y. (2011). Beginner pre-service special education teachers’ learning experience during practicum.

(3), 17 -38.30, International Journal of Special EducationRashid, N.N.B.M.,& Nonis, K. P. (2015). Exploring communication technology behaviour of adolescents with cerebral palsy in Singapore.

Sydney: Routledge. Commonsense methods for children with special educational needs. Westwood, P. (2015).