Compare and contrast models of case management that can be used by the client
Good Lives Model
The Good Lives Model (GLM) is a system of rehabilitation which addresses the negative effects of the other traditional models of risk management. The GLM is used as a theoretical framework for case management of offenders. The GLM uses the approach of strength-base to rehabilitate offenders and relies on the theory that people need to increase their strengths and capabilities for them to reduce the chance of reoffending (Yates, Prescott & Ward, 2010). In GLM’s perspective, individuals commit offences to achieve some valued possibilities in their endeavours. The GLM model assumes that people have the same needs and aspirations and that the main responsibility of the community, teachers and parents is to help every individual to acquire the capabilities to survive in this world.
The Risk-need-responsivity model relies on three principles and they include the need, responsivity and risk principle (Mullahy, 2010). The principle of risk explains that the behaviour of criminal can be easily predicted and that its remedies should concentrate on the offenders who are more likely to commit an offence. The need principle deals with the importance of an offender’s needs in the delivery of the treatment. The responsivity principle explains on how an offender’s treatment should be conducted. Several principles have been included in the primary principles of the Risk-need-responsivity to strengthen the application and implementation of the right implementations. These extra principles explain, for example, the advantages of the staff creating a proper working environment with the client.
Women offender case management model
The women offender case management model (WOCMM) includes gender-responsive and evidence-based research to increase the outcomes involving women justice. The WOCMM is a dynamic, case plan process that begins from the sentencing and proceeds past release from prison or community programmes and concludes when the woman is accepted and can work for herself in the community (Mullahy, 2010). The WOCMM requires the offender to be collaborative and active. It also promotes the growth of individualised services to include the challenges and remedies of the intervention. It also includes supervision, provide resources and interventions that are appropriate to assist the women offenders achieve success.
Therapeutic jurisprudence model(TJ)
Therapeutic jurisprudence is how the systems of law affect the mental health, emotions and behaviours of individuals. This can be used in Skyla’s case since she has undergone the process of law where she was found guilty and ordered to pay restitution fee for the goods she stole. Skyla is emotionally stressed as is evidenced when she said she smokes weed to relieve stress and she is also stressed on who will take care of her children if she has to attend sessions in a rehabilitation centre. The TJ model is used by problem solving courts such as in Skyla’s case in processes such as the procedure justice and being active in listening. The idea of the therapeutic role in law should also not be confused with the concept that psychological therapy should be used legal purposes rather than for clinical reasons (Nolan, 2009).
Common-Sense Model of self -regulation
For a drug user, the impact of the drug is on the effect it has on his or her ability to go on with their routine life. It is therefore important for the case manager to understand the impact and experience of the sudden withdrawal of the offender (Skyla) from using drugs and how to response to withdrawal symptoms in order to be adequately prepared. The main construct of this model is the use of beliefs about illness. The fear of being ill and addiction is used in this model to influence drug users from drug usage (Mullahy, 2010). The model also uses the consequences of drug usage such the impact on the patient’s social and physical life to instil fear and discourage the patient from drug usage.
Telephone conversation (case note 1)
The telephone conversation with Skyla took place as part of the court which Skyla had to visit her case manager but since her child was home from school a physical meeting was not possible. The focus of the conversation was about Skyla’s first appointment with the psychologist and her opinion of the appointment. Skyla opinion was that the appointment was fruitful since they talked about her drug use and that the psychologist believed that Skyla would stop her drug usage.
Skyla sounded like a person with hope when she said that the psychologist believed that she would put to an end her drug abuse behaviour. She also sounded like a person in fear and doubt when she asked about the date on which the urine test would be conducted.
An appointment with the psychologist was set for the next Wednesday. She was advised to look for a job that would help her cater for her family.
Reason for next contact
Skyla’s next appointment is on the next Thursday at 10:30 in the office as part of the court order to visit her case manager regularly (Telephone Client interview).
Face-to-Face Client Interview (Case note 2)
Skyla came into the office and the reason for the meeting was because the court had sentenced her to a community based order. The court ruling was she had to pay restitution fee and be supervised in the community for six months and she therefore had to visit the office regularly. During the interview, Skyla says that she still smokes weed after a couple of days without being specific on the number of days but she says it is not as frequent as before the offence. She also says that she uses methylamphetamine not as before and that it gives her the energy she needs.
She appeared concerned about not being close to her children when she asked if she had to attend treatment such as rehabilitation for fear of being far from her children. She however seemed to contradict herself when she said that children were stressful and that she takes drugs to have the feeling that all her problems are gone.
An agreement was made that they would set the dates for her visits on a later date.
Reason for next contact
Skyla’s next appointment is scheduled for the next week as part of the court order for her to regularly visit a case manager.
The protective factors and the risk factors relevant for the client’s offending behaviour
Early Aggressive behaviour
The risk of early aggressiveness can be observed in Skyla when she shoves the security guard at the K-Mart store. According to previous records and the statement of his brother Shane, Skyla has no previous record of being aggressive. The early aggressiveness of Skyla is a risk since there is a possibility of her embracing the aggressiveness throughout her life while there being a possibility that the aggressiveness was a onetime occurrence. Skyla being aggressive can result to physical and mental injuries towards her opponents or in other circumstances she can also be physically hurt by her opponents (Dobson & Dozois, 2008). An example of her mental injuries due to her aggressiveness is when she complains during the meeting with the case manager that the security guards treated her roughly. This shows that she was still bitter about the ordeal with the guards.
The lack of supervision by parents
The lack of supervision by parents can be observed in Skyla’s case when she says during the interview with the case manager that she still does not have any contact with her mother. Her father died when she was young and she was left with her mother. Her mother immediately remarried after the death of her husband and this did not go down well with Skyla. She first minimised contact with her and then moved to her aunt who eventually told her to leave her house because of her drug usage. Finally her younger brother moved in with her and he was her only close relative. This lack of supervision was partly to blame for drug usage and the criminal of stealing since she had no elder relative to advise her or cater for her needs.
Drug abuse is a risk factor that Skyla is involved with. This is observed when the case manager asks her how frequently she smokes marijuana and she answers that she smokes after a couple of days. Skyla is exposed to drugs by her friends as clearly tells the case manager that she goes out with her friend where they drink alcohol and smoke marijuana (Babor, 2010). One effect of drug abuse is addiction. Skyla’s addiction to marijuana led her to committing the offence. This is evident when she tells the case manager that she had no money to buy food and baby clothes for the baby as they were things the baby needed frequently while she had other needs which were the need to smoke marijuana.
Self-control is the capacity of an individual to refrain him or herself from doing certain things that are not beneficial to the individual. If Skyla had self-control she would have refrained herself from being aggressive to the security guards who were arresting her. This would have eliminated the charge of assault. Self-control would also help avoid her drug addiction. This is because if she had self-control she would have refrained herself from smoking of marijuana (Farrington, 2005).
Parental monitoring entails the supervision of the younger members of the family by the elder members. As can be witnessed in Skyla’s case, she says during the meeting with the case manager that when she used to leave in her parent’s house life was easy and smooth. This is because there was parental monitoring and therefore she was well advised and catered for. The advantage of parental monitoring is that young members of the family are advised and corrected when they are involved in mistakes. Parental monitoring minimises the risk of the children from engaging in wrongful acts (Farrington, 2005).
Neighbour attachment is the bond that neighbours have. The attachment enables the neighbours to know about the whereabouts of their fellow neighbours and the activities they are involved in. Skyla’s situation may have been different if there was an attachment between her neighbours and her (Farrington, 2005). The neighbours would have realised her involvement in substance abuse and advised her accordingly to minimise the risk of her continuing with the substance abuse. As is evident from the conversation between the case manager and Skyla, she clearly that she has minimum contact with her neighbours except her friends who she engages in substance abuse with.
Informal and formal supports that are useful in addressing the client’s risk factors
Informal Social support
Support and care from the neighbours, friends and members of Skyla’s family would be a form of informal support. This network of friends and family members supporting her would give her the feeling of appreciation and love. The case manager can give out his contacts and address to the family members in case there is a problem with the offender or they want to seek further advice. The informal social support provides moral, physical and social support (Neukrug, 2012). A network of support from friends, neighbours and family members is preferable to Skyla than the support of her few friends who mislead her and engage in drug abuse. This support will also put an end to the risk factor of lack of parental supervision. Being close to friends, neighbours and family members will bring Skyla close to people who can advise her and prevent the possibility of reoccurrence of the offence.
Religious groups are a beneficial group of people that Skyla can involve herself with to address the risk factor of aggressiveness and drug abuse. Religious groups offer advice to their members while still involving in useful activities that keep their members busy. Involvement in the religious activities minimise the chances of the members from enganging in other illegal activities (Neukrug, 2012).
Family meetings that involve decision making
These are meetings that involve family members and the aim of these meetings is to creating a bond in the family while addressing the problems involving family members (Neukrug, 2012). In Skyla’s situation, it is impossible to be involved in these meetings since she does not live with her parents but she should make up with her mother and regain their mother-daughter relationship. Regaining their relationship will then bring them together and hence there would be family meetings.
Formal community reintegration services
The community reintegration services provide the transition of an offender from a court case and back to the community. This service is recommended by the case manager who refers his client to the reintegration service while the case manager has close contact with the provider of the services through visitations on telephone calls to monitor the progress of her client.The formal reintegration services involves an offender registering with the head of his or her local community where he or she visits on a regular basis to be educated on how to prevent the reoccurrence of his or her offence. This is because there is always stigmatisation of offenders by the members of the community. The reintegration services also address the risk factor of drug abuse (Farrington, 2005). In Skyla’s case the reintegration services will help her in minimising and finally stopping her addiction to marijuana.
Professional counselling involves the communication between a professional consultant and a client who in this particular case is the offender. The consultant gives professional advice to the offender specific problems (Neukrug, 2012). The consultant also helps address the risk factors such as drug abuse in Skyla’s case. The advisor then listens to the offender’s problems while asking the offender questions and they then jointly discuss possible remedies to the problems and risks. An appointment with the consultant would help Skyla with her aggressiveness since they would work on methods to contain internally the aggressiveness or activities to conduct to help in relieving the urge to be aggressive.
Support from government institutions
Support from government institutions is a structured and formal support system that helps address the risk factors. Example of these government institutions includes the police, government hospitals and courts of law. Government bodies such as the police can help the risk factor of drug abuse by addressing drug peddlers and prevent the distribution of drugs across the country (Yates, Prescott & Ward, 2010). In Skyla’s case she can involve the police by information them the name and location of the peddlers who sells to her the marijuana.
Babor, T. (2010). Drug policy and the public good. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dobson, K. S., & Dozois, D. (2008). Risk Factors in Depression. Burlington: Elsevier.
Face-to-Face Client Interview https://acp.ecu.edu.au/p4szcbs6236/?launcher=false&fcsContent=true&pbMode=normal
Farrington, D. P. (2005). Integrated developmental & life-course theories of offending. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers.
Mullahy, C. M. (2010). The case manager’s handbook. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
Neukrug, E. (2012). The World of the counselor: An introduction to the counseling profession. Australia: Brooks/Cole.
Nolan, J. L. (2009). The International Problem Solving Court Movement. Princeton University Press.
Telephone Client Interviewhttps://acp.ecu.edu.au/p7jvn5olsqf/?launcher=false&fcsContent=true&pbMode=normal
Yates, P. M., Prescott, D., & Ward, T. (2010). Applying the good lives and self-regulation models to sex offender treatment: A practical guide for clinicians. Brandon, Vt: Safer Society Press.