Carbohydrate Essay Example

  • Category:
    Biology
  • Document type:
    Essay
  • Level:
    High School
  • Page:
    1
  • Words:
    471

CYTOANATOMY AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION OF CARBOHYDRATES

CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM AND CYTOANATOMY

Introduction
 
Carbohydrate macromolecules are formed by three elements of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratios of 1:2:1 respectively. They are classified based on the number of carbon molecules in their structure and the basic unit is glucose, a monosaccharide with a chemical structure of C6H12O6. The most important utilised carbohydrate macromolecules are simple sugars, especially for body energy reserve. For instance monosaccharides exists as isomers of each other, and they include glucose, and fructose. Glucose has an hexose carbon ring structure. Fructose have a six carbon ring structure similar to glucose, but the isomer occurs naturally in fruits, honey, and corn syrup used in soft drink and food products.  
Cellular Respiration and Cytoanatomy of Carbohydrates When carbohydrate molecules such as as glucose are brocken down they are converted to energy molecules of ATP at different sites of cellular respiration. This occurs in three metabolic processes in specific localities in the cell and this includes glycolysis, the kreb’s cycle and oxydative phosphoryration. Depending on the presence of oxygen molecules glucose and fructose (which is converted in the liver to glycogen) molecule can yield different amounts of ATP determined by the specific pathways involved. With oxygen in the cell carbohydrate molecule such as glucose undergoes glycolysis, the kreb’s cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in specific areas of the cell cytoplasm, where as in absence it undergoes glycolysis and fermentation in the cytosol.

For use in cytoanatomy carbohydrates macromolecules play a very significant role in development of cellular anatomy in living cells. In the cells carbohydrates attach to the external surface of integral proteins, and this also hold adjoining cells together or act as sites for viruses or chemical messengers such as hormones to attach.
Through glycolysis glucose which is a six carbon monosaccharide is brocken down into two molecules which include pyruvate a three carbon molecule releasing 2 energy molecules of ATP and 2 NADH molecules. The Kreb’s cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix and the chemical process releases ATP, NADH and FADH2, after the oxidation of the glycolysis pyruvate to release carbon dioxide gas. Pyruvate gets into the mitochondoria and this gives carbon dioxide and a 2 carbon molecule called Acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA then undergoes oxidation to yield carbon dioxide gas and a chemical energy is released in form of NADH, FADH2 and ATP.  



Conclusion
The carbohydrates macromolecules are important component of living cell biochemistry and it plays a very important in cell physiology especially cellular respiration. This involves the cell structure anatomy, acts as a body energy reserve, and a ready source of energy in the body.

References Poor, P. R. (2003). «The molecular machinery of Keilin’s respiratory chain». Biochemical Society Transactions 31 (Pt 6): 1095–1105.

Berkow, Robert, ed. 1999. The Merck Manual. 17th Ed. Merck, Sharp & Dohme, Rahway, NJ.