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5Consumer Behavior


The Internal and External Influence of Consumer Behavior

The consumer buying process is a complex issue as various internal and external factors influence their buying decisions (Quester, Pettigrew & Hawkins 2011). Their behavior or process in influenced by factors such as perception, learning, and motivation which are internal factors as well as factors such as cultural values, family roles and social norms that make up external factors. Internal factors represent the ability of the consumers to benefit directly from a product. The motivation of a consumer to buy or consume a particular product is an internal factor (Schiffman et al. 2014). The perception of the consumer greatly determines their behavior and allows them to justify an action or another depending on the perceived outcomes. Social norms are a well-known factor that influences consumer behavior (Ha & Perks 2005). The prevalence on new trends or brand names affects the way any individual consumer chooses a product for himself or herself. Cultural values are also increasingly tapped factors by marketers in influencing customers. In the modern competitive business environment, the superiority of customer enables businesses to be successful. Customers expect different and high standards and it is crucial for a company and its employees to be aware of their role in maintaining quality customer care. This supports the image of Cadbury and enables to business to attain its goals. Cadbury brands include chocolates, candy, beverages, and snacks whose consumer buying process is determined by internal and external influences.

The internal influences in Cadbury are attitudes, motivation, personality, and emotion. Attitude refers to an enduring combination of perceptual, emotional, perceptual, and cognitive processes with respects to an environmental aspect. Cadbury has managed to create a favorable, unique, and strong brand association in the consumers’ minds. Cadbury uses a memorable packaging and robust distribution system to assist its brand image and brand recall; this helps to add to the brand association for the products and to build its brand equity. Cadbury has a strong brand image and consumers do not easily switch to other competitor products. The combination of taste and quality of Cadbury bars, blocks, and boxes and the feeling of pleasure, which they bring, makes the product a sought-after and loved brand (Cadbury 2014). The customer attitudes towards Cadbury products are formed from exposure to adverts, direct experience, word of mouth, and direct marketing. Cadbury consumers believe that Cadbury Chocolate has a different and high quality eating experience. According to Percy and Rosenbaum-Elliot (2012), ‘I love Cadbury’ is an attitude about Cadbury, which connects the brand in the consumers mind with a likely reason to buy: sensory gratification.

Cadbury’s move shows an understanding and confidence of consumer motivation. Motivation is a process of creating motives, for instance Cadbury’s ChocoBix, a chocolate flavored biscuit, is founded on customer insight that rural mothers choose to buy biscuits instead of buying chocolates for their children (Miryala 2013). Consumers’ attitude leans toward functionality in this case. Cadbury seeks to understand the attitude and beliefs of their consumers to make their product offerings acceptable and understandable. Personality in Cadbury products is greatly related to the physical image of the product as well as its package. Through creating or reinforcing brand’s personality, Cadbury has enhanced its brand image or equity. The company has managed to change its brand personality from a chocolate meant for the children to one of any age group and for most occasions by using a series of advertisements. The colour and packaging are aesthetically pleasing and they have a personality. Each Cadbury product has its unique brand image and brand personality in order to appeal to the target market. The “Khane-Walo-Ko-Khane-Ka-Bahana-Chahiye” (“They just need an excuse to eat it”) is a tagline for Cadbury Milk that the company aims at the submissive persons who are uncertain of breaking away from the societal rules. The advert conveys a message, which helps these persons to come to terms with the thought of eating chocolate anywhere anytime, founded on their urges without caring for what other people think. Cadbury carefully develops and maintains a brand communication that targets the various attributes of the customers’ personality and projects the projected brand personality to build a loyal consumer base.

Cadbury products have achieved a household-name status in chocolate and cocoa products. In Australia, the household is the basic consuming and purchasing unit and hence it is of great importance to Cadbury marketing. Cadbury takes into consideration the household structure when designing its products. Since children learn about consumption and purchase behavior from their family members, Cadbury designs products for people of all ages. Most families have a dual income set-up, they have occupations and are earning and this change has been seen in the lifestyles of the dependents and children. Children are also getting more dependent everyday and they are aware of the brands that they seek. Every person is able to make purchases within the current family structures of the brand that they prefer. Children are influenced by their parents to purchase Cadbury products. Their perception about the Cadbury brand is influenced informally by the opinions and views from their family. The consumption pattern of most families and individuals is also influenced by their lifestyle. Lifestyle is a major factor that influences the decision to buy Cadbury product offerings. The biggest percentage of Cadbury consumers are high class and middle class individuals and families. Owing to the lifestyle changes towards healthier products, Cadbury has moved to produce healthier choices. The company responds to the changing lifestyle needs of the customers through developing flexible production patterns.

Reference List

Cadbury 2014, Cadbury Named Australia’s Most Popular Grocery Brand, viewed April 30, 2014,

Ha, H & Perks, H 2005, ‘Effects of consumer perceptions of brand experience on the

web: brand familiarity, satisfaction and brand trust’, Journal of Consumer Behaviour,

vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 438-52.

Miryala, R 2013, Changing paradigms of rural management, Zenon Academic Publishing, Hyderabad.

Percy, L & Rosenbaum-Elliot, R 2012, Strategic advertising management, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Quester, P, Pettigrew, S & Hawkins, D 2011, Consumer behaviour, 6ed, McGraw-Hill Australia.

Schiffman, L, O’Cass, A, Paladino, A & Carlson, J 2014, Consumer behaviour, 6th edition, Pearson Australia, Frenchs Forest NSW.