By Student’s Name

4Design of Рnеumаtiс and Нydrаuliсs Сirсuits


Task 1: — LO 3.1

Designing a hydraulic multi-actuator sequential operation circuit that comprises of the emergency stop must have more than two components so as to achieve its operation and control. One of the elements that will make up this circuit is the emergency stop valve. This valve will be tasked with the role of preventing the door from reaching the closing position together with the latching emergency stop palm button valve. On realizing the latched stop palm button, the state of the door will not alter, for example, the door will not have a sudden pullback to close at a high speed or restart by closing itself, but instead it will have a stop at the position when the two valves have been released.

Once the door has stopped the fluids will not be re-introduced until the reset button is pressed and the emergency stopped then, the button will be un-latched. Another component that works hand in hand with this circuit is the single acting cylinder which has inbuilt spring to automatically in-stroke or out stroke the cylinder when there is no air supply into the circuit.

Figure 1: Hydraulic Multi-actuator Circuit by Student’s Name

Task 2: — LO 3.2

Coming up with a hydraulic rudder control system with the ability to monitor and control speed and uses a rotary actuator requires a well laid down components with a sequential produce so that the machine can coordinate and carry its function as necessary. This machine will need a lot of accuracies so that it can aid the ship to have a precise and desired balance when moving at high speed and when it wants to negotiate a corner. Therefore, designing this machine will have numerous switching operations. These switches are tasked with the function of preventing the rudder from swinging and moving beyond the normal position. This will help to maintain the desired speed at a particular time and also to avoid over-controlling of the ship by the waves forces.

Again, designing this machine will also require it to have certain crucial components such as the pumps that will ensure that maximum and constant pressure is supplied to the ship so as to propel it forward or backward depending on the situation. The pump cannot work alone. Therefore, it will require that a control member also known as the positioning device is installed. This device comprises of some components that work and coordinates with each other and intern relay the balance to the pump. The part of control member will include the electrohydraulic valve that is tasked with the role of monitoring and regulating the position of the rudder. Together with other devices that make up this machine, it will also require that it must have a systematic means of operating the valves mentioned above so that they can continuously control the position of the rudder. Furthermore, designing this hydraulic rudder control system to effective speed control will need the installation of the quiescent also known as the jarring frequency. The jarring frequency will serve the purpose of helping to actuate the movement –dependent remote control system and the other valves and also to monitor the vibration of the other machine components.

. Mounting the rudder on the shaft will also make the ship engines to have enough power to regulate the speed on both sides of the ship. With the help of electrohydraulic control valve the circuit will be able to monitor the magnetic amplifier which will intern help in ensuring that the Dc is put off. The electrohydraulic control valve is a plunger kind of a device that works and controlled and monitored by an electric circuit. [ CITATION Ses15 l 1033 ]At the time of installation, the hydraulic actuated rudder actuator must be mounted onto the rudder shaft so that the hydraulic circulation can operate flexibly and allow free movement of air and passage of pressure to the circuits hence making the whole circuit system to have the maximum pressure that will not cause a default in the system

. This will comprise of real value generator through which the movement of the ship depends on and the actual or the typical value generator which is connected to the predetermined steering control that possess both fine and coarse adjustment with the continuity kind of contact for influencing the ship from swaying from one side to the other thus bringing stable movement of the ship in the water.[ CITATION Ses15 l 1033 ]int. Designing this hydraulic rudder control system and enabling it to possess the ability to work with a rotary actuator valve and speed control system involve coming up with a control signal system that works hand in hand with the movement-dependent remote control system since they will help in monitoring the speed of the ship and also prevent the rudder from changing to null po[ CITATION Ses15 l 1033 ]The function of the amplifier is very crucial to this machine since it is responsive and depends on the instantaneous deviation of the rudder position at the given set standard position of the valves hence bringing the action on the amplifier resulting to a push-pull on the amplifier. More so, the amplifier will also aid in regulating the speed of each winding valves so that the valves will be able to move in one direction hence controlling the speed of the ship

. This will make the hydraulic pressure to be applied on the left side of the piston causing three events to occur; displacement of the piston sleeve, axially and channeling and rotates cylinders clockwise. [ CITATION Fad11 l 1033 ]On the same note, Rotary actuators will also be mounted on the ship without the tedious process of stroke lengths required for cylinders. The helical-spline actuator also known as sliding spline or helix will be installed so as to help in the conversion of the linear piston motion into the shaft rotation. The helix is composed of a cylindrically shaped cover and the shaft and annular piston sleeves which are in continuous move. The helix teeth machine will engage a ring gear that is integral with the housing thus propelling the ship

This machine will also include an enclosed piston crank actuator in its components. The piston crank actuator possesses an adjustable arc of up to about one hundred degrees. The primary function of this arc is to ensure that the machine has a minimum mechanical problem. This is because it is the built-in bearing support that helps to overcome side thrust forces and with the aid of spring in its content, it can return the shaft to a safe position especially when there is a power failure or fluid loss. In return, the sinusoidal distribution is provoked thus generating maximum torque which can move the ship in the desired direction and regulate the speed.

Moreover, to have a machine with full control of the speed, it must have a piston-chain actuator. The piston-chain actuator will be installed in the taut over the two sprockets. One of the sprockets will be tasked with the role of converting the linear motion into the torque output while the idler sprocket will try to maintain the pressure and tensions when the speed is high thus reducing the velocity at which the ship will be moving at. Again, two shaped links that will be located at the equidistance on the chain. The housing of each piston has ports located at the opposite ends of each cylinder. The pressure fluid that enters the ports will act against both pistons thus in the end results in the control of the speed on both sides.

by Student’s Name 1

Figure 2: Hydraulic Rudder Control Circuit

Task 3: — LO 3.3

The electro-pneumatic technology especially the automation circuits are mainly formed by the three types of components. These are sensors, control devices such as switches and valves and the last element is the actuators. Most of the tools that are used to execute the logic of the system are stored in the central unit of the computer that is used to control the operation of machines’ components. The switches and sensors are connected to the direct control valve while the actuators are used as output. The device only works when an internal executing program is installed and monitors the executions of all the logics necessary for the success operation of the circuits.

Designing an electro-pneumatic controller requires a systematic and procedural sequence that will enable the machine to work and operate as intended. Therefore to develop this device, it will need individual components. To begin with, the machine will have a signal relay that comprises of proximity switches and the directional control valve. The directional control valve always works as a link between the electrical signal control unit and pneumatic power portion mounted on the controller. The proximity switches comprise of the Normally-opened (NO) contact switch, Normally- closed (NC) contact switch and the Changeover contact switches. Also, the circuit will include solenoid Valve, which is an electro-mechanical device that works to monitor the movement of a single acting cylinder while the 5/2 DCV double solenoid controls the operation of the actuation of the double-acting cylinder.

Another important device that is crucial for the functioning of this circuit is the electrical devices that include the coils and more contact switches. These devices will help to regulate and generate enough heat that will be required for the circuit’s operation. The proximity sensors which are needed for monitoring the correct locations of various parts of the machines will also be required. In this respect, this circuit will have three kinds of proximity sensor that comprise of a capacity sensor that poses the ability to detect and checking whether all parts of the circuits are complete except that component that has low-density products. The second proximity sensor is the optical sensor which is advice that can detect bright objects and surface reflectively with exceptions of the dull and black surfaces. Inductive sensor is another proximity that works by detecting metals.

A component that will supply the circuit with a continuous electrical signal will also form part of this circuit so that the signal can always exist even when the push button SI has been unlocked. This will require the installation of the self-holding electrical circuit. The push button always guides the operation of this machine on the SI. For instances, if the push button is pressed for a short duration, the coil of the relay will be powered making the changeover contact switch to cause while the relay remains activated and operating even when the button has been released. In the same sequence, the push button S2 will be pressed so as to counteract the effects of the self-holding circuits.

Figure 3: Pneumatic Circuit Figure 4: Electric Circuit
by Student’s Name 3by Student’s Name 2

Task 4: — LO 3.4

cylinder when there is power shortage hence returning the spring to its offset mode. This will lower the machine slowly to the ground hence preventing accidents.. Consequently, the piloted-operated DCV will permit the free flow of fluids in the opposite direction so as to retract the [ CITATION Fad11 l 1033 ]A fail-safe circuit is always designed to prevent the operators and damages to equipment. Overly, the fail-safe circuit is meant to prevent the machine from accidentally falling on a player especially when there is a sudden loss of power. Therefore, designing this circuit will require individual components such a cylinder that will lower the pilot pressure that comes from the blank and passes to the end of the piston when there is a power failure. In turn, the pilot will then open the check valve at the rod end so as to pass the oil to run through the DCV to the tank. This will occur when the push-button valve is actuated so as to allow pilot pressure from the actuation of the DCV while the pump is operating

by Student’s Name 4

Figure 5: Fail-safe Circuit

Task 5: — LO 4.1

The use of hydraulic fluid power technology for a given industrial application

Hydraulic fluid power technology is applied in various industries. For instances, in the health industry, the fluid power technology is used to pick up trash in places where there are no spaces and with tight alleyways, overhead interference and in narrow streets. The ZR Series full- eject automated machine which is one of the hydraulic power machines is used in this area. This machine has a zero-radius side arm that lifts containers vertically above the arm and then dumping them in the transportation truck. The ZR device is also used to eject the load without the help of gravity dump.

In the music industry, the hydraulic fluid power technology has been employed in various ways. For example, the Spider-man musical uses the power of hydraulic fluids to control and lift stage and platforms. These hydraulic fluids are used to drive numerous types of stage platforms. Always, farthest downstages are the three installed scissor lift devices that from the basement help to drop a ten feet by thirty feet area of the stage down to the ten feet and completely out of site. One of the most used machines in this industry is the Parker D91FH hydraulic servo valves and the finely tuned software that allows the device to appear as if it is moving as a single platform when desired. One of the lifts located on the platform can propel the Spider-man character upward above more than four feet per second.

this technology. For example, the grape harvester that is employed in various terrains and on various sizes of grapes makes an extensive use of the hydraulic system. This machine is mostly used for grape picking, conveying and cleaning the grains. The picking function is carried out at the Saurer-Danfoss 75cc and with the help of compensated piston pump. Therefore, it brings efficiency and time management in the agricultural industry. . Most of the devices that are used for harvesting different crops apply[ CITATION Fad11 l 1033 ]The development of various machines in agricultural sectors has not excluded the use of the hydraulic fluid power in this industry

In construction companies, electrohydraulic fluid power is applied to various equipment so as to reduce the time and the costs of development. Moreover, this material also helps to simplify accuracy and make the road construction accurate. For example, the track circuits apply closed-loop hydraulic pumps. The vibrator circuits are usually open with loop and with load-sensing pumps. It uses the tandem closed-loop hydrostatic pumps that make it easier for excavation and construction cheaper and easier.

In the same construction industry, the hydraulic in the concrete saw a machine which is used to cut materials straight and at the desired angle. This device is operated with 5 HP hydraulic motor which is joined to the rack-and- piston transfer machine. It is run with the help of the joystick. The operator can set the desired power level with the support of the potentiometer. Consequently, the variable–displacement will be caused to move and eventually make the concrete cut the concrete slap.

Gasket blanketing machine

. The feed bed and the loading bed will have to be fixed so as to receive the incoming web of gasket materials from the three opening which is located far from each other.[ CITATION Ses15 l 1033 ]Designing a Gasket blanketing machine requires precise and accurate devices with procedural and sequence functions. Therefore, this machine to work it will have a loading bed. The loading bed act as the receiver of the sheets gasket that is fed from the roll which cuts through the tooling was hence cutting and lining the materials to be cut so that they would fit into the machine they are intended to be used on. Again, the sheet gasket will also be tasked with the role of separating the gasket and separating the center crap from the remaining sheets

To work properly and give out the output, it must have a substantial unrolling means through which the content and cut materials are interlocked. On interlocking the materials, they will be moved to the blanking area via a feed bed which is located and mounted on the end of power bed. Once these materials have reached the blanking area, the gasket blanketing machine gives a signal to alert the users that the gasket materials are located correctly, or they have been misplaced. These signals devices comprise of a green color, red color, and an alarm sound. The green color will indicate only when the materials are correctly located while the red color and the alarm will show and ring when the materials are wrongly placed. Finally, when the material has been put in the correct position, the door trap opens to release the gasket to the waiting queue tube. Consequently, it makes the guard open so as to lower the ejected materials to the conveyor for either transportation purposes or storage.

Task 6: — LO 4.2

Technical requirement and commercial consideration for the blanking machine

. This is known as the sealing environment. The designer and the user are, therefore, tasked with the role of determining the environment that the machine will be used. They have to know whether the environment is cold or hot so as to bring the machine that will withstand the established environment. More so, they will also have to know if the machine will work together with chemicals and other solvents. This call for the analysis of the UV zone and stipulate if the chemicals and solvents will not react with some parts of the machines hence preventing possible risks that may arise due to chemical reaction thus affecting the whole operations of the machine.[ CITATION Ses15 l 1033 ] The technical requirement for the gasket blanking machine involves many issues. One of the major problems that are considered before designing and using the gasket blanking machine is the consideration for the environment it is going to operate

. Therefore, the head engineer is required to determine the methods of attachment to be used. For example, adhesive or noodles or other attachment methods such as the clips, nails, and staple. This will help to ensure that the machine is firmly installed and no cases of detachment that may cause leakages are avoided. Therefore, the engineers are required to identify the opening seal or the gap that the machine will fit into, and this gap must include minimum and maximum holes that cut across the application hence making the machine be firmly located.[ CITATION Ses15 l 1033 ] It is also required that an organization give a proper teaching and information to its employees especially those workers who deal with installations of equipment. The employees should be given full information on how the compression fitted will be attached to a particular machine or section of the building

On the same note, when using the adhesive attachment method, it needed that the designer to make sure that the attachment noodles to be wider and firm to anchor the machine properly. The adhesive attachment application also requires that the minimum strip of adhesive to be used must have considerable weight. This is because the adhesive holds the seal to the mating substrate which has a lot of weight. Therefore, the low weight would lead the collapse of the connected machine due to the higher pressure emitted.

. The designer must come to establish whether the application will involve sponge materials or dense materials. This requirement is valid and important since the materials which are used to make the machine will have a lot of effect on the closing force. To determine the type of materials, the amount of power is calculated so that the machine will be able to withstand high pressure and force thereby avoiding blow-ups of the circuit or overheating of the device. More precisely, it is required that if the application of needs less closing force, the sponge materials should be used while if high joules of forces are involved, the machine dense materials should be utilized.[ CITATION Kon152 l 1033 ] Another core technical consideration of the gasket balancing covers the issues of the kind of the materials to be used when designing and building this machine

Regarding the fixed guards of the gasket blanking machine, it is a considered that, the fixed guard must be attached using a machine or system that be removed or opened using only certain specified tools. This helps to prevent the problem of careless opening and removal of the part of the machine thus disturbing the machine and may also cause certain accidents.

Task 7: — LO 4.3

Health and safety requirements for the design, installation, maintenance and use of the blanking machine

include checking whether the flange parts are correctly connected and assembled and are parallel to each other. For instance, the person who is authorized to carry out the installation is required to ensure that the new gasket is carefully connected in between the ribs to prevent surface damage to the gasket.. This will [CITATION Kon08 l 1033 ] To meet the health and safety standards, the companies and institutions are required to adhere to the rules and regulations governing the design, installation, and maintenance of machines. Regarding the installation, societies are needed to ensure that the machine is inspected and ensure that all its parts are well fixed and functional

Regarding the use and maintenance, the company’s engineers are required to use the lubricants and fuels that are compatible with the machines’ component, such as washers and nuts. This is important in that wrong use of oil or other fuel or fluids that are not compatible with the machine will cause a severe breakdown or at a time may cause injuries to the operators especially when the belts or other component are chopped off by the reaction of the fluid on the machine. Therefore, correct fluids are required to be matched with the correct machines.

On the same note, investigation of the past accident regarding the gasket machine should be properly done and causes of such accidents established so that the future repetition of the same is avoided. When carrying such investigations, it is required that the persons who were involved or witnessed the happening to give their account and inform the organization on the previous state of the machine before the accident. This will help the organization to establish whether the accident occurred due to the poor maintenance or other factors.

. This will help the organization to react fast and help curb the situation before it worsens and also the lives of the other workers will also be saved.[ CITATION Kon091 l 1033 ] To avert these accidents, companies and institutions are required to equip their employees with emergency preparedness skills. These skills include how the employee can escape as fast as possible from the accident before it affects them, how to choose the shortest possible routes of escaping and how to raise the alarm so as to alert the other employees of what may be going on

Meeting the health and safety requirement for the design uses maintenance and installation of the blanking machine the companies and institutions are required to perform periodical electrical inspections on all their machines especially the gasket blanking machine. This will involve replacing the worn out parts of the machines with the new ones and also replacing the used oils at a certain given period. Moreover, the inspection will also be accrued on the buildings where the companies will be tasked with the responsibilities of the developing a program that will automatically carry testing and inspection of each building so as to give voltage systems. Any default found by this inspection should be addressed, and the necessary adjustments made to the machine so as to promote its safety.

h company is required to give accurate information covering the use, cautions, and operations of the devices. This will help the workers to know how to operate the machine and detect any uncommon thing with the machine thus raising the concern before it leads to accidents. It will help to save money, time and lives of the operators’ hence promoting health and safety on the organization.. Therefore, eac[ CITATION Fad11 l 1033 ] The authority also requires safety information as one of the ways of improving health and safety in an organization with regards to machines and equipment

Reference List

Milano (Italy), IFAC, pp. 4326-4331.Sequential probability ratio test using first Laplace distribution for oscillatory fault detection of an hydraulic actuator. Fadiga, L., Cazaurang, F., Lavigne, L. & Goupil, P., 2011.

7(2), pp. 283-288.Proceedings of the JFPS International Symposium on Fluid Power, Kondo, H. & Hibi, A., 2008. A study of a multi-step pole type electro-magnetic actuator for controlling proportional hydraulic value.

2(2), pp. 9-14.JFPS International Journal of Fluid Power System, Kondo, H. & Hibi, A., 2009. A study of a multi-step pole type electro-magnetic actuator for controlling proportional hydraulic valve.

8(2), pp. 82-89.JFPS International Journal of Fluid Power System, Kondo, H. & Kurata, Y., 2015. A study of a multi-step pole type electro-magnetic actuator for controlling proportional hydraulic valve (magnetic flux flow in the actuator).

Volume 132, pp. 65-76.Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Sesetty, V. & Ghassemi, A., 2015. A numerical study of sequential and simultaneous hydraulic fracturing in single and multi-lateral horizontal wells.