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Social media has enabled and accelerated the social construction of brand meaning; however, not all brand communications are authentic and trustworthy (Bourdieu, 2014). The sole aim of this essay is to find solutions towards the constant chaos emerging from ideologies concerning the social media and society. The paper shall recommend varying theories, concepts and policies towards media and consumption. In connection to that, these different paradigms linked to media and consumption consequently predicts specific forms of policy and action towards brand marketing.


According to Brown, and Turley, (eds.), (2007), consumer demands and their corresponding motivations are critical features in the process of constructing the brand name. Firstly, the marketers ought to get a technical knowledge of such human needs, motivations and the sole goal meaning. In a more detailed approach, the explanation of motivation, goals and needs is demonstrated below (Bourdieu, 2014).

  1. Motivation

Motivation is characterized as the main thrust inside people that prompts them to activity. This main impetus is created by a condition of strain that exists as the consequence of an unfulfilled need. People endeavor both deliberately and intuitively to decrease the strain they feel by tending to the need (Burrows, and Marsh, 2012).

Model of the Motivation Process

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Every person in the world possesses his/her own needs, therefore, it is correct to say that needs underpins every action of the man. Preferably, a need can transform into a motive in case is aroused to a substantial caliber of intensity (Burrows, and Marsh, 2012). For instance, a case study to Australia-New-Zealand marketers tends to address their potential consumers’ need with: flexible banking; easy access and mobile access.

We can refer a goal as an aftermath of motivated behavior of the consumer. In other words, it is regarded as an interior representation of preferred condition (Deighton, and Grayson, 1995). Briefly, we may say that every behavior of the consumer is goal leaning, thus, the social media brand marketers are apprehensive with consumers’ product-specific goals: meaning that the acknowledged products are selected to satisfy the consumer desires. The consumer needs and goals are interconnected, whereby, the goal is dependent on the needs the consumer has (Bourdieu, 2014).

Hierarchy of needs

Back in 1943, Abraham Maslow established a framework of human motivation founded on global hierarchy of needs. Specifically, Abraham categorized exactly five key stages of needs. Wherefore, none of the levels is independent, thus there is overlap of needs between the levels. Firstly, this speculation advocates that people aim at satisfying the lower desires first. When the needs at the lower level are fulfilled, the desire for higher level crops up (Bourdieu, 2014).

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

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This framework has been used widely in evaluating social sciences in social media platforms such as face-books, twitter, radio and TV stations (Bourdieu, 2014).

Marketing applications of the needs hierarchy

Segmentation applications: need hierarchy theory is applied during the segmentation approaches, mainly in media advertising platforms. An example; a soft drink advertisement that is focusing the young people as the market will point to the social media appeal whereby they will show the youths via owning as well as sharing good times.

Brown, and Turley, (eds.), (2007), suggest that positioning applications: social media enhances the brand name by evaluating the manner in which the product will be conceived by the market on target. Here, the role of the media is to search for the need that is not satisfied and that has no competition.


In social media, the following are key players under this aspect of brand marketing: comprehension of sensory changes of perception; learning and understanding the three fundamental elements of perception; and finally, understanding the composition of the consumer thinking and corresponding application strategies.

Sensory dynamics of perception

Perception is referred to as the progression by which a person gain, identify and evaluate the stimuli forming an imperative as well as a coherent imagery of the globe. A stimulus is an element of effort to any of the senses. Under the situations where there is intact stimulation, the unconditional entrance increases to culminate into a sensory adaptation. Such approaches influences a problem for media TV advertisers since the audience get used those stimulus. Under such problems, the social media platforms like face-book responsibly help in adapting some blended strategies of combating such changes. Examples of the adaptations they adopt include: altering the advertisement, application of silence, louder noise and distinctive colors, and finally, introduction of expectation conflicting stimuli (Burrows, and Marsh, 2012).

arketers apply several strategies in order to increase sensory input: pragmatic promotion; stylish scent advertisements; ensnare publicity; product residency; magazine inserts; and point-of-sale displays (Deighton, and Grayson, 1995).Social media has influenced the construction of brand name via application of augmented sensory contribution. The m


(Burrows, and Marsh, 2012)Perceptual organization

Perceptual organization is whereby the consumers arrange the stimuli into clusters and see them as merged wholes. Perceptual organization principle is regarded as a Gestalt; meaning ‘pattern. The following are the three fundamental logics in this principle:

here individuals try to assort their perceptions into figures as well as ground inter-relations. Figure and ground:

often people have a tendency of grouping stimuli involuntarily thus forming a unified representation or intuition. Grouping:

Closure: in case the design pattern is partial, the media people deliberately or sub-consciously complete the missing pieces

Perceptual mapping

This is an approach used by the marketers through media to determine the product’s or service’s appearance to the consumers in connection to the competitive brands. Perceptual mapping allows the media marketers point out the gaps especially when determining the position of products or brands along with identification of sections of unmet customer need. Perceived image is preferred to service firms since the brand is insubstantial. Image is a crucial influencer when distinguishing the service from its contenders (Miller, Daniel, 1995).

Price/quality relationship

The researchers have suggested that customers depend on price to judge the quality of the brand or product. Perception of value differs according to segment, such as age and income. Consumers use price as a surrogate indicator of quality if they have little other information. The form in which products are sold may alter perceived value (e.g. selling in bundles may reduce quality perception) (Burrows, and Marsh, 2012).

Conceptual model of price, brand name and store name on perceived value

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The ancient work concentrated on people formulating individual associations between their life and the stimuli. Speculations identified with publicizing originated from examination called hemisphere lateralization (Miller, Daniel, 1995).

Framework for predicting level of involvement

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Sets our preparing of data around an issue is dictated by our association with the issue. Profoundly included people will translate a message consistent with their convictions as more constructive (digestion impact). Deighton, and Grayson, (1995), say that brand value is the quality added to an item by the observations a buyer has of the brand name. Brand value adds to the acknowledgment of new items, expands the designation of rack space, and improves saw worth and quality. Brand names hold a combined level of name acknowledgment and organizations regularly purchase them to make moment acknowledgment for another item. Brand value prompts brand devotion, expanded piece of the pie and more noteworthy benefits (Ewen, Stewart, 2008).

Consumer attitudes – attitude development and change

The attitude-towards-behavior model

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Communication via the media

Communication: is the transfer of thee signal from the source or sender to a recipient through a medium or some likeness thereof (Ewen, Stewart, 2008). The fundamental area to the procedure is the input. The response alarms the sender with respect to whether the expected message has been gotten.

Basic communication model

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Companionship gathers: this gathering for mostly impacts the item buy choices.

Virtual gatherings or groups offer data and social connection through on-line networking.

Shopping bunches include individuals who go shopping socially as group.

Work bunches have significant impact because of the substantial measure of time spent together. Buyer activity bunches autonomous bodies framed to help shoppers settle on educated decisions. Brand people group predominantly are solid admirers of a brand.

According to Ewen, Stewart, (2008), it is conceivable to change mentalities towards organizations and their items by indicating out their relationship and social gatherings, occasions or causes. An obscure cause will advantage more from a relationship with a surely understood brand than a surely understood cause. It is judicious for the supporter to clarify the thinking behind the sponsorship.


There is expanding media discontinuity: the organizations identify the common media classifications that will achieve the best of their objective (e.g. Television, print, web). Print media as well as web platforms permit boundless message length; show is auspicious and prompt.

Society is entirety within the scholarly convictions, qualities and traditions that serve to coordinate the buyer conduct of individuals from a specific culture. To comprehend what society is and its influence to the buyers’ practices, first it is prudent to see how culture goes about as an ‘imperceptible hand’ guiding utilization related states of mind, qualities and practices. Society sets gauges for fulfilling gain purchasers’ needs, realized and communicated in dialect, images and customs. Society on shopper conduct dependably adjusts to culture-related encounters (Miller, Daniel, 1995).

Through on-line networking, society offers individuals request, course and direction. It gives principles and «tenets» about day by day life. Social convictions, qualities and traditions will be taken as far as they yield fulfillment, however they might be altered or supplanted over the long run. Along these lines, society is always showing signs of change: •e.g. a movement to more comfort nourishments and an expanded cognizance of wellbeing and wellness.

A theoretical model of culture’s influence on behavior

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Personality/identity is a remarkable element association of attributes of a specific individual, physical and mental, which impact conduct and reactions to the social as well as physical set up (Hansen, and Schrader 1997). These are three media floods of examination and hypothetical advancement that are adding value to our comprehension of identity and how is used in advertising:

Freudian theory

Neo-Freudian theory

Trait theory

(Hansen, and Schrader 1997)Freudian theory

Taking into account Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic hypothesis of personality, oblivious needs are critical human inspirations and identity. Freud trusted person’s identity contained three communicating frameworks:

•The id — stockroom of primitive as well as hasty drives, works on the delight standards.

•The superego — singular articulation of good and moral sets of principles

By: 8The inner self — individual’s cognizant control, endeavors to adjust the id and the superego.

Marketing applications of Freudian theory

Car companies in example, Audi-Australia Pty Ltd regularly mainly apply the facets of Freudian theory in their marketing strategy (Hansen, and Schrader 1997).

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Neo-Freudian personality theory

Neo-Freudians trust social connections are crucial to the arrangement and improvement of identity. Alfred Adler saw people as trying to get judicious objectives (‘style of life’) and making progress toward prevalence (Holbrook, Morris, 2001). Harry Stack Sullivan focused on individuals consistently endeavor to set up huge and remunerating associations with others by decreasing pressure, for example, uneasiness (Holbrook, Morris, 2001).

The five-factor theory of personality

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According to Holbrook, Morris, (2001), this segment looks at particular identity qualities that impact practices, for example, buyer imaginativeness, stubbornness and social character; requirement for uniqueness; purchaser defenselessness to interpersonal impact; ideal incitement level; assortment looking for; intellectual identity components; focused and enthusiastic buyers and shopper ethnocentrism (Holbrook, Morris, 2001).

Consumer dogmatism and social character

The level of unbending nature of individuals towards new data is opposed to their convictions. Customers who are opinion are thought to be liberal (and more imaginative). Buyers with high obstinacy (close-minded) will probably pick set up items. They will likewise be receptive to adverts containing a definitive offer (promotions utilizing specialists and big names).


Generally, inspiration can either be constructive (referring to the objective approach) or unconstructive (referring to the objective avoidance) in direction.

Sometime, people fail to reach their goals consequently; resulting to frustrations. Frustration:

t is not possible to accurately infer motives from behaviorNeeds and goals vary among individuals therefore, i

By: 11Motivation is a dynamic construct: needs and goals are ever changing

. Motives are hypothetical constructs making them difficult to identify and measure. Additionally, consumers are not always aware of motives or are unwilling to disclose them. Measurement is usually a combination of observation, self-reports and projective techniques (Holt, Douglas 1998).

Marketers are sometimes are accused of: creating’ needs; targeting vulnerable populations (children, teenagers and the elderly); providing too many consumption choices leaving consumers feeling confused, unhappy and psychologically drained; aggressive advertising (Deighton, and Grayson, 1995).


Conclusively, Individual Choice hypotheses are fundamentally worried with utilization as necessities driven conduct. Necessities are created inside a social domain through inward mental and intellectual procedures, prompting decisions inside a commercial center of potential outcomes (Deighton, and Grayson, 1995). For grown-ups, accordingly, the media ought to be seen primarily as a wellspring of data, which individuals may use to decide. The objective of publicizing and advertising is to advise, or at most to uncover inert requirements. But since kids are as yet framing their identities and needs, and do not have the capacity to tell great data from terrible, they are seen as particularly helpless against the media, and some type of insurance is subsequently required (Holt, Douglas 1998).

To condense; Social hypotheses uncover the ways that utilization serves to keep up and challenge the limits of social gatherings, including countries, classes, sexual orientations, and ethnic assortments (Miller, Daniel, 1995). Utilization is a social code, and individuals devour to fit in or to emerge. Ideas like status, ways of life, and ways of life are all in light of social considerations, which liken specific examples of utilization with particular gatherings (Deighton, and Grayson, 1995). From this point of view, the part of the media is to reflect bunch qualities, giving pictures that strengthen personalities and give reference bunches, however individuals additionally pick media that fit their gathering attributes. Promoting can control these parts, by empowering copying of higher status aggregates, and partner brands and styles with specific social gatherings (Miller, Daniel, 1995).

To abridge; Cultural speculations delineate utilization as an expressive demonstration, weighed down with significance. Individuals use merchandise to convey to others, to express sentiments, and to make a socially requested environment (Miller, Daniel, 1995). Most scholars contend that in present day social orders, mass buyer products purchased in the business sector have progressively dislodged neighborhood, indigenous, inventive customs, items, and implications. From this point of view, the broad communications are themselves social manifestations that mirror a perspective, yet can likewise dislodge nearby social expressions with national or worldwide ones (Holt, Douglas 1998).


Bourdieu, P. 2014. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste. Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Brown, S. and Turley, D. (eds.). 2007. Consumer Research: Postcards from the Edge. Routledge, London.

Burrows, R. and Marsh, C. 2012. Consumption and Class. St. Martin’s Press, New York.

Deighton, J. and K. Grayson 1995. “Marketing and Seduction: Building Exchange Relationships by Managing Social Consensus.” Journal of Consumer Research 21(4): 660-676.

Ewen, Stewart 2008. All Consuming Images. New York: Basic Books.

Hansen, U. and U. Schrader 1997. “A Modern Model of Consumption for a Sustainable Society.” Journal of Consumer Policy 20(4):443-68.

Holbrook, Morris 2001. The Semiotics of Consumption: Interpreting Symbolic Consumer Behavior in Popular Culture and Works of Art. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin.

Holt, Douglas 1998. “Does Cultural Capital Structure American Consumption?” Journal of Consumer Research 25 (1) 1-25.

Miller, Daniel 1995. Consumption and Commodities. Annual Review of Anthropology 24:141-161.