Business Research Project Report Essay Example

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21MGNT 922 Research Project

Business Research Project Report


I would like to express my profound gratitude to my tutor for the useful comments, remarks and engagement throughout the learning process of this project. In addition, I would like to thank survey participants as they willingly shared their precious time during the interviewing process and answering the questionnaire as well. Finally, I am really thankful to my loved ones, who have supported me throughout the entire process by constantly encouraging me and assisting me to put pieces together. I’m entirely grateful for your love.

Table of Contents





5Literature review

5Helping Behavior

6Demographic Characteristics and Fundraising Motivations

6Motivation Factors for Participating in Fundraising Events


8Research Methodology

8Statement of the Problem

8Study Objectives

9Significance of Study


11Data Analysis


12Results and Discussion



17Reference list



Motivations for donations are intricate and mostly result from a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic concerns (Sargeant & Woodliffe, 2007). Understanding the diverse motivations for donations, giving, as well as participating in charity events is vital since understanding individuals’ motivations results to fundraising tactics and strategies that are both effective and efficient when it comes to targeting and retaining of donors. Bekkers & Bowman (2008) explains that understanding factors that influence potential donor and participants in charity events can enable fundraisers to more efficiently tailor their messages and fundraising events for specific target groups. This study seeks to investigate the key motivators and criteria for individuals or corporations consider when taking part in the “Do It For Cancer” program. The “Do It For Cancer” is an evidence-based cancer organization that helps fight cancer including through fundraises to assist support those touched by cancer. The “Do It For Cancer” objectives include developing and growing tailored supporter journey for people with cancer. The “Do It For Cancer” also aims at improving and increasing supporter engagement into Cancer Council NSW and other. Currently, Cancer Council NSW has many events and therefore fitting Do It For Cancer is a challenge to the marketing and support section because the calendar events is already full. Therefore, in order to facilitate successful integration of the Do It For Cancer into the regional portfolio of Cancer Council NSW, it will be important to investigate the motivating factors for the event’s participants in order effectively integrate the “Do It For Cancer” into the regional portfolio.


Literature review

In order to successfully reach out potential donors and participants from individuals and corporate as well, it is important for marketers and event manages with the responsibility of fundraising programs to understand how and why individuals and corporations decide to participate in fundraising activities (Gladden et al, 2005). A study conducted by Blackwell et al (2001) to examine new marketing strategies for fundraising events found out that the motivation along with the decision-making process in regard to donor behavior may vary from those marketing strategies within other kinds of consumer activities. This study found out that to understand the behavior of donors, the marketers and individuals in charge of the fundraising programs and events are supposed to have insight in regard to events participation motivations, since the fundraising programs are fundamentally events in concern with donation activities (Blackwell et al, 2001). To have a better understanding on motivating factors for participants of fundraising events, studies on helping behavior, donor motivation in fundraising events, as well as motivation of fundraising participants were examined.

Helping Behavior

According to Center on Philanthropy (2009) individuals relate with helping behaviors associated with egoistic or altruistic motivations. The motivating factors for individuals who assist the needy for egoistic reasons include: to have some benefit for assisting others while keeping away from drawbacks that might come because of not assisting the needy and this is common in corporations who owe the society corporate responsibility. In contrast, people who take part in helping behaviors with altruistic motivations have genuine care towards those in need and they do not care about rewards that comes with participating in fundraising events. Bekkers & Bowman (2008) further explain that participating in helping behaviors is as a result of a mixture of egoistic and altruistic reasons.

Demographic Characteristics and Fundraising Motivations

According to Levine et al (2008) various demographic characteristics influence the level of participations and donations made during fundraising events. Mesch et al (2006) further elaborate that in regard to age, young individuals donate the least to altruistic causes while relatively older individuals donate the most. However, Sargeant (2007) found out youths are likely to participate in fundraising activities that are appealing to young people. In regard to gender, females have a higher likelihood of volunteering in charity events when compared to men. Mesch et al (2006) also found out that women have a high likelihood of participating in medical and health-associated fundraising events whereas men are likely to participate in arts and humanities causes. Therefore, it is expected that age and gender are likely to motivate participation in Do It For Cancer” activities.

Motivation Factors for Participating in Fundraising Events

Fundraising organizations fundamentally use diverse activities and events as a way of attracting potential and current donors. In an attempt to evaluate diverse donor motivations, Kemmelmeier et al (2006) developed a criterion that identified four donor motivations, namely: Philanthropic motivations; Social motivations where fundraising events are perceived as platform for social interactions with family and friends; and success, for instance supporting the success of cancer fight and benefits, such as triumphing over cancer.

Some studies allied to charity donation provided a strong theoretical background regarding donor motivation. Kemmelmeier et al (2006) employed theory of human motivation in regard to charity donation. According to this study, the motivating factors for individuals and corporations to participate in fundraising events include: public recognition which is common in corporations; philanthropy; collaboration which aims at achieving similar goals; bringing change; as well as curiosity. Center on Philanthropy (2009) also conducted a study on key motivators and found out that philanthropy, business improvement, community pride and psychological obligation.

Studies on motivating factors fundraising events for cancer events found out that the main motivating factors include: supporting charity event programs; celebrating cancer survivors; assisting cancer patients and their loved ones; Altruist reasons; entertainment during the events; social affiliation; public recognition as well as collaboration in fighting the cancer menace (Sargeant & Woodliffe 2007).

Levine et al (2008) also adds that motivating factors to take part in fundraising events also include having passion and identifying with the organisational objectives. For example, in this case individuals who identify and have a passion regarding cancer are likely to take part in Do It For Cancer (DIFC) events. Additionally, events’ schedule also influences the probability of individuals participating in the events. Therefore, the when scheduling events it is important to take into consideration individuals’ programs and schedule the events when they are likely to be free to take part in the events.


Research Methodology

Statement of the Problem

There are many events and programs in Cancer Council NSW and hence fitting proactive Do It For Cancer (DIFC) marketing and support into an already full events calendar is a difficult task in Southern NSW, Australia. As a result, the main problem is effective integration of the Do It For Cancer program into the regional portfolio without extricating, confusing or exhausting the current market. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the key motivators and criteria individuals or corporations consider when taking part in the “Do it for Cancer” program.

Study Objectives

Specific objective

  • “Do It For Cancer” program. To find out the key motivators and criteria individuals or corporations consider when participating in

General Objectives

  • Do It For Cancer” eventsTo investigate the demographics of individuals and corporations likely to take part in “

  • program?Do It For CancerTo identify the most successful and efficient activities fundraisers can use to raise funds for the

  • “Do It For Cancer” events and the events’ successful integration in the regional event portfolio without interfering with the current market To determine the most suitable schedule for

Significance of Study

The main goal of Cancer Council NSW is to reduce the impact of cancer on individuals and the community, and to lessening the burden for people affected by cancer. Cancer Council NSW is mostly community funded, and relies on community’ fundraising efforts for its funding. Cancer Council NSW has many fundraising programs including: Biggest Morning Tea, Daffodil Day, Pink Ribbon events, Relay For Life, Dance For Cancer and Do It For Cancer. The other events have set times schedules apart from “Do It For Cancer”. Accordingly, it is of paramount importance to integrate “Do It For Cancer” into the regional event portfolio without interfering with the current market. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the key motivators and criteria individuals or corporations consider when participating in “Do It For Cancer” program.



Southern NSW, Australia

Study Design

The study used an exploratory cross-sectional design in investigating key motivators and criteria individuals or corporations consider when participating in “Do It For Cancer” program. The exploratory characteristic was vital in collecting data on the key motivators and criteria individuals or corporations consider when participating in “Do It For Cancer” program. This research design is suitable because the study deals with several population members and studying the whole population is not possible and hence sampling helped in generalizing and inferencing the whole population (Li & Zhao 2008).

Study Population

The population of this study was obtained from various corporations and people in Southern NSW, Australia


Convenient sampling was used as the sampling technique and it consisted of 10 corporations and approximately 20 individuals in Southern NSW. The 10 corporations were selected from a sampling pool of all firms in Southern NSW. This sample was adequated representation of the population because it is a significant share of companies within Southern NSW, Australia. Data for the study was obtained using interviews and self-administered questionnaires. In every company, one questionnaire will be administered to the Manager, and another to the CEO. This means that the expected number of questionnaires will be 20 for corporations and 20 for individuals. For the 20 individuals, individuals were sampled randomly and interviewed and administered with the questionnaire as well. The questionnaires were delivered personally to the study participants. Interviews and the questionnaires contained both open-ended and closed-ended questions on key motivators for participation in the “Do It For Cancer” program.

Data Collection Methods and Instruments

Interviews and Semi-structured questionnaires were used to the primary data. Semi-structured questionnaires had open ended question that obtained qualitative responses on the respondents’ perspectives while closed ended questions collected quantitative data. The questionnaire had 3 sections. Section A contained general information of the study participants and the corporation. Section B sought information regarding motivating factors for participating in fund-raising events while section C sought information on elements that should be integrated in the “Do It For Cancer” event to ensure it is convenient, flexible and appealing for event participants and fundraisers. The questions corresponded with the study objectives. The questionnaire was piloted in order to identify any ambiguous question (Grimus, Ebner&Holzinger 2014). The questionnaires were delivered to individuals and the sampled corporations and picked later for analysis. However, interviews were conducted during delivery of the questionnaires and the information recorded for further analysis.

Data Analysis

The collected information was entered in the computer spreadsheet and classified into themes to determine the key motivators and criteria individuals or corporations consider when participating in “Do It For Cancer” program. In addition, MS Excel was used to determine descriptive statistics of the study. Furthermore, descriptive statistics were utilized in providing a general idea of the data that was used to determine key motivators and criteria individuals or corporations consider when participating in “Do It For Cancer” program (Kloman 2008).

Ethical Issues

Informed consent was obtained from the management and all study participants prior to carrying out the study. In addition, permission was sought from the appropriate authority prior to conducting the study (Kloman, 2008).


The research employed questionnaire and interviewing as the primary data collection methods. Data collection method of focus group could have also been used in addition to interviewing and questionnaire in order to get the fuller picture about key motivators and criteria individuals or corporations consider when participating in “Do It For Cancer” program.


Results and Discussion

Attachment to the Fundraising Cause

The results of the study indicate that individuals as well as corporations primarily participate in fundraising events if they have an attachment to the benefiting cause, in one way or another. Therefore, in corporations whose social responsibility objectives align with combating cancer, such organizations are likely to participate in “Do It For Cancer” events. In addition, individuals who have a passion for fighting cancer and who happen to know someone who fought or fighting cancer are likely to take part in the events. Fundraising events also provide individuals with platform for social activities and entertainment as well. For instance, some respondents always took part in fundraising events involving sports because they found them fun and entertaining as well. Therefore, for the “Do It For Cancer” when planning for the events it is important for the organisers to target corporations that identify with the objectives of “Do It For Cancer” program because such corporations are more likely to participate in the events. In addition, the organisers of the event should ensure that activities such as sports and other entertaining aspects are integrated in the events because entertainment and fun are key motivators for individuals to participate in fundraising events (Bekkers & Bowman, 2008).

The Objective of the Fundraising

The study results also show that whereas being aware on how the raised money will be used is important to the participants, corporations and individuals are likely to participate in fundraising events if they belief that the funds will be used effectively. Even though respondents indicated that knowing the purpose of the funds was vital, many of the study participants did not have any information on how funds were used regarding the last fundraising event they participate. Most individuals and corporations indicated that they would happily participate in events associated with “Do It For Cancer” if they believed that the funds will be used to support a cause. However, most of them emphasised that if they discovered that the funds were not used for the intended purpose this would contradict their belief and hence this would adversely affect their likelihood of supporting “Do It For Cancer” fundraising events. Generally, corporations sponsoring events were likely to sponsor “Do It For Cancer” events if they were aware on how the fundraised funds would be used. Accordingly, it is advisable for management and organisers of the program to indicate how the funds they intend to use the funds being fundraised as this is likely to motivate participants. In addition, organisers of “Do It For Cancer” program should consider providing information regarding past fundraising events as this is likely to encourage individuals’ and corporations’ participation (Sargeant & Woodliffe, 2007).

Philanthropic Motives

According to the study participant, philanthropic motives such as supporting medical charities and assisting cancer patients were the most persuasive and vital reasons for the participants to take part in fundraising events. This result was expected because the key objective of “Do It For Cancer” is to assist cancer patients and their loved one as well as raise funds for Cancer Council NSW. This was in line with previous studies investigating sports fundraising where individuals were likely to participate in sports events whose aim was to fundraise for cancer patients and other medical objectives (Van et al, 2005).

Group Collaboration

Group collaboration was another identified motivating factors among the study participants. A yearning to establish groups and attain an objective was perceived as an important factor for taking part in “Do It For Cancer” event. A motive for teaming up with other individuals (to assist cancer patients) can be accredited to the fact that the “Do It For Cancer” event is a team effort, and an individual should be a team-member within a group for them to take part within such events. According to Alhidari (2013) for a fundraising event to be a success, it is extremely critical to put emphasis on the team concept of fundraising. Actually, in some events, boosters are placed where teams compete with each other and the team that has the higher likelihood of raising the highest amount of funds. Therefore, marketers and organizers of “Do It For Cancer” should focus on organising the fundraising events in teams. This is more applicable in the targeted corporations because corporations are likely to sponsor their employees to participate in the events in groups.

Sport Activities

The study results also indicated that sports activities are likely to be key motivators for individuals to attend fundraising events. Therefore, it is important for marketers and personnel managing the “Do It For Cancer” to understand the sports that the target market prefers in order to attract more participants and hence raise more money. Characteristic sports activities identified by the study participants include: swimming, running, cycling, walking, and football competition. “Do It For Cancer” ought to carefully choose the sport they utilise in order to attract a variety of clientele (Kemmelmeier et al, 2006).


Tangible benefits were found to be a key motive for corporations. This is because most corporations were for the view that participating in charitable events is likely to improve their image and it is also a part of corporate responsibility. This result is in line with Kemmelmeier et al (2006) who conducted a study on motivating factors for fundraising events allied to medical research. This study identified motivations for corporations to take part in charitable organizations as: income advantages, corporate responsibility and improving image.


In regard to demographics of participants to fundraising events, the results indicated that females are more likely to participate in philanthropic events when compared to their male counterparts. On the other hand, male participants are likely to participate in sports/social related motivation events. The results also showed that young people are not likely to participate in fundraising events when compared to relatively older people, perhaps due to financial restrictions. As the study results indicate, marketers of the “Do It For Cancer” program can use the demographic characteristics of participants as a base for market segmentation. As a result, “Do It For Cancer” event marketers can develop more segment-suitable and personalized communication strategies to attract potential event participants (Levine et al, 2008).

Fundraising Events’ Scheduling

Finally, scheduling of the events is a key motivator for the participants to take part in fundraising events. Most of the study participants preferred the events to be held during weekends when they were not attending school or when not working. According to Alhidari (2013), it is important for event organisers to ensure the fundraising events are scheduled at the most convenient and appropriate time for the potential participants.



In conclusion, the marketers and organizers of the “Do It For Cancer” fundraising events can use the study results by integrating motivation for participating in Do It For Cancer” events. Additionally, this study will assist “Do It For Cancer” personnel involved in fundraising programs to know the motivational factors regarding “Do It For Cancer”; this knowledge can be utilised in developing variety cancer-related fundraising programs. For instance, knowing the salient benefits of fundraising events to potential participants can help the marketers and organisers in better develop cancer-related fundraising events. In addition, the results in this study will provide marketers working with Cancer Council NSW with valuable insights for developing marketing strategies for attracting and retaining sponsors and contributors. Finally, by identifying the key motivating factors for event participators, marketers and personnel of “Do It For Cancer” program will be able to effectively integrate the events within the Cancer Council NSW portfolio without compromising other events. Future research should be performed to find out if it is possible for “Do It For Cancer” program to raise funds through mobile donors and the key motivators towards mobile donations.

Reference list

Alhidari I, 2013, Investigating Individuals’ MonetaryDonation Behaviourin Saudi Arabia, Cardiff University.

Bekkers, R., & Bowman, W, 2008, The Relationship Between Confidence in Charitable Organizations and Volunteering Revisited, Nonprofit and Volunteer Sector Quarterly, 1(1).

Blackwell R, Miniard, P & Engel, J,2001, Consumer behavior (9th ed.), Orlando, FL: Harcourt College Publishers.

Center on Philanthropy, 2009, Understanding Donor
Motivations for Giving, New York: CCS.

Gladden, J. M., Mahony, D. F., & Apostolopoulou, A, 2005, Toward a better understanding of college athletic donors: What are the primary motives? Sport Marketing Quarterly, 14(1), pp:18-30.

Grimus M, Ebner, M & Holzinger A, 2014, Mobile Learning as a chance to enhance education in developing countries – on the example of Ghana. Graz, University of Technology.

Kemmelmeier, M., Jambor, E. E., & Letner, J, 2006, Individualism and Good Works: Cultural Variation in Giving and Volunteering Across the United States, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37(3), May 2006, 327-344.

Kloman, F., 2008, The use of qualitative context analysis in case study research, Qualitative. Social Research. Vol. 7, No. 1.

Levine, R. V., Reysen, S., & Ganz, E, 2008, The Kindness of Strangers Revisited: A Comparison of 24 US Cities, Social Indicators Research, 85(3), pp:461-481.

Li, K, & Zhao, X, 2008, Asymmetric information and dividend policy, Financial Management. Vol. 37, No.4:4-15.

Mesch, D. J., Rooney, P. M., Steinberg, K. S., & Benton, B, 2006, The Effects of Race, Gender, and Marital Status on Giving and Volunteering in Indiana. Nonprofit and Volunteer Sector Quarterly, 35, 565-587. O’Neil, M, 2001, Research on Giving and Volunteering: Methodological Considerations, Nonprofit and Volunteer Sector Quarterly, 30, 395-402.

Sargeant, A., & Woodliffe, L, 2007, Gift Giving: An Interdisciplinary Review. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 12, November 2007, 275-307.

Van Slyke, D. M., & Brooks, A. C, 2005, Why Do People Give? New Evidence and Strategies for Nonprofit Managers, American Review of Public Administration, 35 (3), 199-222.

Appendix: Questionnaire


Area of residence

Availability/free time to participate

Scale item

Involvement with the charity.

  1. I often feel desire to participate in events supporting the charity

  2. Supporting the fundraising events makes my own life better.

  3. A major reason I participated in the event was to assist improve the status of the fundraising programs

  4. My decision to participate in fundraising events is because I identify with the objective of the event

  5. Supporting a fundraising event gives me an intrinsic sense of satisfaction.

Desire to pursue sporty events because they promote healthy lifestyle.

  1. Sporty events keep me fit and active.

  2. Sporty events develop my physical fitness.


  1. I like impressing the people who know I am participating

  2. I enjoy the positive reactions from those I support

  3. It creates a positive image

  4. It is a part of social responsibility

Social factor

  1. I get an opportunity to meet new people.

  2. It is fun interacting with other participants.

  3. It is enjoyable sharing the experience of participating with other people.

  4. I get to meet my friends and family and interact with them

Feels a duty to participate.

  1. I feel it is my duty to take part in events that support the charitable good cause.

  2. I feel I have the responsibility of supporting people suffering

  3. I feel it is my responsibility to take part in charitable events and assist others to improve their lives.


  1. Participating in fundraising activities is fun.

  2. I love the excitement associated with the event.

  3. I enjoy the atmosphere surrounding interesting the event and fun

  4. I enjoy participating because charitable events are have extremely entertaining experiences

Desire to experience helper’s high.

  1. Supporting charitable causes makes me feel like giving something to yourself

  2. Supporting charitable causes gives me a lot of satisfaction