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Background Research Report About Human Condition and Science Essay Example

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Background Research Report: Human Condition and Science

Background Research Report:

Human Condition and Science

Table of Contents

31.0 Introduction

32.0 Science and Human Body

32.1 Science and Disability

42.2 Science and Sports

42.3 Science and Health

53.0 Science and Human Mind

53.1 Science and Ethics

53.2 Science and Psychology

54.0 Conclusion

65.0 Reference List

1.0 Introduction

A lot has been said about human condition, yet the fundamental question has always been, “What is meant by ‘Human Condition?’” Perhaps we have to begin from this point. Human Condition simply refers to all aspects of human life. For a slightly broader meaning, human condition can be said to be the various ways in which human beings dig into and play around with their immediate environment so as to satisfy the unending human wants and needs. With the current technological advancements, the world has witnessed several changes in various fields of life such as sports, science, philosophy and disability. There is a lot of correlation between science and human condition and it is as a result of this that the former seems to care a lot about the latter. In view of this, this report, therefore, seeks to provide some insight about the research that has already been done with regard to science and human condition. The five main themes that this report is going to focus on are the relationship between science and disability, sport, health, ethics, as well as psychology.

2.0 Science and Human Body

Science has been instrumental in addressing issues of disability, health, as well as sports. They have been affected variously as shall be discussed below:

2.1 Science and Disability

In order to make it easy for those people who lack limbs to accomplish their day-to-day activities just like their ‘normal’ counterparts, science and technology has developed artificial limbs for those who lack limbs. For these limbs to function, electrical signals from the body are detected and then magnified so as to cause some motion (Professional Engineering, 2006, 40). This technology employs some basic steps in its course to enable grip by the artificial arm. First, the amputee (or disabled) has to see the item before initiating the grip. Through the SR hand, the local intelligence interprets this information before converting this intent into a pre-grip position. One then flexes their muscle in order to initiate the grip command for the hand to eventually curl up (Professional Engineering, 40). The artificial fingers have sensors which detect slippage and then act accordingly. Currently, the degree of movement of the joints has been increased up to six. For each finger to move independently, a motor was recently incorporated with an intention of creating the flex action. The greatest challenge, however, has been the high costs of motors as well as their heaviness and huge power consumption. Some companies like Touch Bionics have developed artificial arms for people who have lost their arms from the shoulder going downwards (Professional Engineering, 41). What has been missing, however, is the lack of sensation by the prosthesis. Some inventors are, however, working on this by implanting the nerves serving the arm into chest muscles.

2.2 Science and Sports

Contrary to many other fields of life, scientific inventions and innovations in sport have seen it featured for all the wrong reasons. For centuries now, drugs have been used by participants in order for them to have an upper hand compared to their competitors (Fitch, K., 2012, 258). Some of the prohibited scientific substances and methods in sports include stimulants, diuretics, beta blockers, insulin, blood doping, androgenic anabolic steroids among many others. Blood doping can be described as the act of manipulating the features of one’s blood so as to improve performance in a sporting activity (Fitch, K., 2012, 259). It is a technique that is common amongst cyclists and athletes. Insulin is being misused by athletes in the name of suffering from Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) due to their anabolic and anticatabolic effects. Androgenic Anabolic Steroids (AAS) is used both in oral form and as a testosterone. Beta-blockers, on the other hand, are used by sportspersons due to their anti-tremor and anti-anxiety features. Technology has been a problem in sports mainly because of the disparities that exist between the adopters and non-adopters as a result of cost and access differences. Such parameters as racket design and/ or javelin center of mass bring about this inequality in sports and hence disadvantaging some groups (Grasso, D., 2008, 9).

2.3 Science and Health

Science and technology has had a wide-ranging impact in the health industry. Its effect has been seen in nanomedicine, regenerative medicine, enzyme/gene therapy, cell and/ or stem therapy among many other areas. Due to science, for example, the development of artificial red blood cells, oxygen therapeutics as well as antioxidant oxygen carriers has been possible. Additionally, a substitute of blood that is capable of transporting both carbon dioxide and oxygen has been developed. Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOC) is also a major product of scientific interventions in the health sector. These carriers have a single function of the red blood cells [2]. The groups that have been instrumental in developing these carriers include the Northfield Group, the Biopure Group and South Africa as well as Russia.

3.0 Science and Human Mind

Just like in the area of human body, science has had a significant impact in managing spiritual aspect of human beings. This is applicable in ethics and psychology as is discussed in the subsections hereunder.

3.1 Science and Ethics

Scientific and technological advancements come with their own potential risks. In fact, several significant risks have been attributed to science. A good example of risks caused by science is the field of astronomy. The greatest victims in this area include the astronauts and their families (Kahn, J., Liverman, C. & McCoy, M., 2014, 104). Due to the potential health risks of many of these missions, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was established with the major aim of controlling the human space lift program and containing the potential risks that could emerge from space missions (Kahn, J., Liverman, C. & McCoy, M., 2014, 104). Important to mention is the fact that NASA ensures that there is greatest benefit from expenditures from the public. There are internationally ethically acceptable health risks that astronauts may be exposed to. Beyond these, astronauts are not allowed to undertake certain missions. This is where NASA comes in. As an institution, it assesses these risks on behalf of the astronauts so that ethics can be adhered to (Kahn, J., Liverman, C. & McCoy, M., 2014, 105). Scientific decision-making is, therefore, based on these ethical standards.

3.2 Science and Psychology

In psychological studies, psychedelic plants have been widely used. Key amongst their areas of applications include religion, celebration and also for curative reasons (Krebs, T. & Johansen, P., 2013, 5). It is estimated that for the last 40 years or so, the amount of psychedelic doses that have been used by people all over the world is amazing. Even though there has been some fear that serotonergic psychedelics can cause mental illnesses, destruction of other body organs, addiction or even withdrawal symptoms, reliable research has proven otherwise (Krebs, T. & Johansen, P., 2013, 5). On the contrary, psychedelics have been known to be a source of emotional instability as well as confusion at times. On the overall, therefore, psychedelics can be used for psychological purposes with very minimal shortcomings (Krebs, T. & Johansen, P., 2013, 6).

4.0 Conclusion

The discussion presented above gives a vivid picture of the various researches that have been done in the field. Science, as has been presented in this report, has a great impact in the discussed fields i.e. health, sports, disability, ethics and psychology. Valid points have been presented to that effect. In conclusion, therefore, it is worth noting that science has had a great deal of positive impacts than negative impacts in the overall human condition. In fact, if cautiously employed, science will remain the single most significant asset in the human condition.

5.0 Reference List

Fitch, K., 2012. Proscribed drugs at the Olympic Games: Permitted Use and Misuse (Doping) by Athletes. Clinical Medicine, 12(3), pp. 257-260.

Grasso, D., 2008. Engineering Communication: Engineering and the Human Condition. American Scientist, 92(1), pp. 8-19.

Kahn, J., Liverman, C. & McCoy, M., 2014. Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Space lift: Ethics Principles, Responsibilities and Decision Framework. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

Krebs, T. & Johansen, P., 2013. Pychedelics and Mental Health: A Population Study. PLoS ONE 8(8).

Professional Engineering, 2006. Get a Grip. Professional Engineering Publishing.