Background research report

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BACKGROUND RESEARCH REPORT

Several spectators turn out to watch their favorite sports such as football. These people gather in large stadiums that are constructed in a position to accommodate most of them and have a clear view of the game. However, one of the key issues that must be ensured is the safety of the spectators. Safety is one of the critical priorities that must be provided especially in public facilities. As such, the paper explicates on a various issue concerning the safety and health of the stadiums. Some key issues make it necessary to ensure safety in most of the public facilities. Some of the most significant are the emergency situations such as demonstrations, overcrowding, terrorist attacks, and fire.

Ali at al asserts that “there are many factors that need to be considered which influence the management of sports facility” (Ali at al., 2011 pp.99). This is a clear indication that the management plays a vital role in ensuring safety is guaranteed. However, there is a substantial need for reinforcement mechanisms such as ambulance services and police. As a result, these and other external agencies play a significant role in making sure that security is enhanced in heavily used public facilities.

It is imperative to note that any stadium facility is prone to various threats. Among the most common threats include violence and emergencies, and these must be amicably solved with the use of safety measures. The research was conducted to analyze the level of spectator’s awareness of safety issues. The outcome of the study indicated that creating the awareness is a very challenging task. To achieve success, managers in charge of the facilities should ensure that they check up the condition of the stadium before, during, and after matches.

Fire is another disaster that must be considered when designing and building stadiums for safety purposes. One of the most remembered incidence that involved such a disaster is the Great Fire of London which necessitated the need to rebuild the city later. Some of the modifications that were made during the rebuilding included the provision of space and walls that can resist fire. These adjustments were aimed at guaranteeing that in the case of any fire incident the stability of the building will be preserved for a longer period.

Furthermore, it is imperative to note that fire engineering plays a vital role in ensuring stadium safety. The required standards must be guaranteed when designing and building large buildings. Dowling at al asserts that “Fire safety engineering may be suitable for solving a problem with an aspect of building design” (Dowling at al., 2016 pp.38). Thus, understanding that fire safety engineering consist of three primary packages of measures is sensitive. The key actions are aimed at ensuring that the available methods are maximized in preventing, controlling, or limiting the outcomes of the consequences of fire incidence.

The stand is another place in the stadium that must be structurally structured to ensure that the spectators are safe. As such, it is essential that stadium managers need to make sure that a structural fire engineering assessment is conducted on a frequent basis. The primary objective of these evaluations is to affirm that the stadium has integral resistance to fire and related incidences. As well, this reduces the need for fire precautions or applying for fire protection mechanisms. On the other hand, designing of hospitality boxes which can resist fire for almost one hour is one of the solutions that have been implemented successfully (Dowling at al., 2016). Regarding fire loads present, this period of one hour was considered as sufficient in the prevention of fire breakouts.

Consequently, structure and fabric have been considered as essential in creating comfort in the stadiums. As well, it provides a relaxed environment for the spectators and the players. One of the most applied techniques is that designers like constructing stadiums which are left open on top. However, this is subject to the game that is being played. Some of the events require that a rooftop exists between both the players and the spectators to ensure the environment are conducive. According to Culley and Pascoe, “Creating fully enclosed space presents the opportunity to control the environment within the enclosure” (Culley & Pascoe, 2009 pp.93). However, there is one challenge that has been associated with this kind of design. It has been profoundly rejected because it involves high consumption of energy and the comfort conditions are highly unpredictable.

To minimize the utilization of energy, an air distribution strategy was developed within the enclosed space. This strategy as well fits in within the desired architecture and creates the favorable and comfortable conditions within the stadium. Another traditional way of ensuring that the conditions are achieved includes the use of overhead air supply. Conversely, this approach also involve too much consumption of energy which makes it undesirable in the contemporary society where there is a lot of emphasis on conservation of energy.

There is one method that has been adopted as the best solution to the various challenges faced in the maintenance of the stadium conditions. These techniques involve a low-air supply system with the primary objective of conveying low air supply below the spectator seats. One advantage of such a system is that it creates a local microclimate in the region where the spectators say instead of managing and controlling the whole stadium (Culley & Pascoe, 2009 pp.93).

The above information and analysis clearly indicate that public safety is one of the most significant and prevalent issues are all sports stadiums. According to Weerasekara; “Stadium facility management needs to have a valid and qualitative evacuation plan to evacuate the crowd safely and effectively” (Weerasekara, 2015 pp.1). Thus, this is a clear indication that evacuation of the spectators during emergencies is crucial. Evacuation simulation models, therefore, ensure that all the potential evacuation routes in the stadium are maximized with an objective of saving many people. As such, there is a substantial need for plans to ensure that this is possible. As a result, identification of the evacuation parameters is one of the most significant aspects that these plans must take into account.

In addition to the above, it is imperative to note that there are several objectives of safety. One of the most significant goals is to save lives of the spectators, managers, and players. As well, safety is aimed at reducing the occurrence of injuries, and protecting assets from damage and destruction. This is a clear indication that there must be evacuation plans and procedures in every stadium. In conclusion, it is crucial to comprehend that the study of evacuation plans of buildings plays an elemental role in providing safety for both audiences and players. As a result, managers and governments must ensure that safety and conditions of the public stadiums are enhanced.

References

Ali, I.M., Hashim, A.E., Wan-Ismail, W.Z., Isnin, Z. and Mohd-Nazeri, M.A., 2011. Spectators safety awareness in outdoor stadium facilities. Procedia Engineering, 20, pp.98-104.

Weerasekara, N.N., 2015. Modeling and Simulation of Evacuation Plan for Hancock Stadium.