AT3 Research Design

  • Category:
    Other
  • Document type:
    Research Paper
  • Level:
    Undergraduate
  • Page:
    4
  • Words:
    2458

Table of Contents

2Quantitative Method of Data Collection 1.0.

4Method of Data CollectionQualitative 2.0.

5Appraisal of Proposed Data Collection Tools 3.0.

6Process of Data Analysis 4.0.

7Ethical Considerations 5.0.

7Respondents’ Consent 6.0.

8Privacy and Confidentiality 7.0.

8Vulnerable Population Group among the Aboriginals 8.0.

Assessment Task 3: Research Design

As already noted, the research intends to obtain data from the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance regarding Aboriginals in Australian Capital Territory regions. In as much as the data from South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance can be categorised as process based data, outcome data, purpose data, logical data model, these fall under the category of either qualitative or quantitative. The research will obtain measures of counts or values which are expressed as numbers. The outcome of quantitative and qualitative data will enhance development of an initial understanding of the identified problem which, in the study, is whether there is a link between children’s sleeping patterns and obesity among Aboriginals in Australian Capital Territory regions, Australia.

  1. Quantitative Method of Data Collection

The objective of the research is to predict the expected outcome with regard to data collection and analysis tools that have been used. Secondly, Chen, Beydoun and Wang (2008) argue that quantitative method of data collection is essential when data are collected from South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance because the method will help the research to test the relationship between the two variables (children’s sleeping patterns and obesity). There is need to gain better comprehension of obesity trends among children between the ages of 5 to 15 years among Aboriginals in Australian Capital Territory regions. This view has been supported by Shi et al. (2010) who argued that adoption of quantitative method of data collection in a study helps the research to decipher or discover ideas and insights since quantitative method is based on causal relationships. As Marshall, Glozier and Grunstein (2008) observed,
quantitative method is more than simply collecting and analysing data; it involves the understanding of reports from parents on height and weight in tandem so that the overall strength of a study is greater than either qualitative or quantitative research.

Specific to previous researches, this study recognises that children between the ages of 5 to 15 years will not participate in quantitative survey, the question prepared will be presented to their parents or guardians and this will either be done in hospitals or homes but with the guidance from South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance especially when monitoring risk factors, trends in obesity and other issues of health services. Additionally, open ended and closed ended questions will be adopted in the questionnaire to challenge assumptions and theories that have been used in understanding the link between patters of sleep and obesity. That is, while open ended questions test the validity and conformity of the assumptions and theoretical models that other studies have adopted in assessing the connection between sleeping patterns and obesity, closed ended questions on the other hand will examine what research design considers as the scope, scalability, size and sustainability of the research topic. In so doing, the independent variable (obesity in in Australian Capital Territory regions) becomes the main focus of the research. Again, closed ended questions will help in the understanding of dependent variable (children’s sleeping patterns) as the causal factor that tends to influence the problem of the research.

In conclusion, the observations to be gained from the questionnaires will be sorted into two distinct but mutually exhaustive and exclusive categories where the observations will be labeled in terms of elements such as Agree and Disagree or numbers such as 0 and 1. However, these categories will have to be defined so that all observations regarding obesity and patterns of sleep can be harmonised or fit into one category but no more than one at a given time (1=Absolutely agreed, 2= Agreed, 3=Neutral, 4=Not agreed).

  1. Qualitative Method of Data Collection

There is consensus among scholars that there is need for the integration of qualitative method of data collection as the approach helps the research to capture the broad point about what the research hopes to accomplish and the desired outcome from the process of researching (Wells et al., 2008; Matricciani et al., 2012; Liou et al., 2012). In addition, qualitative method has been adopted as it introduces what is missing from the literatures reviewed thus identifying the gap in knowledge. Since quantitative data method identified open and closed questions, integration of qualitative approach provides an opportunity for the introduction of semi-structured interviews with the aim of discussing their beliefs, feelings and perceptions regarding their observations on sleeping patterns and obesity. Respondents as earlier identified, will take place in the semi-structured interviews so as to ascertain among other aspects of the research, perception and awareness of obesity and the link patterns of sleep to health related complications.

In order to capture certain aspects of respondents’ views, Douglas (2016) noted that interviews should be conducted on face to face while recorded as aspects such as facial expressions are essential in discerning respondents’ answers. At the beginning of the interview processes, the respondents will be briefed about their roles, elements intended in the process of interview and options of withdrawing if a given aspect of interviewing does not conform to their rights or beliefs. Finally, the qualitative analysis of the responses will involve the interpretation of each aspect of the rubric according to the respondents’ view. Furthermore, descriptive statistics (means and frequencies) will be utilised in the analysis.

  1. Appraisal of Proposed Data Collection Tools

The research uses mixed method of data collection as it enhances reliability of the data that will be collected and the deductions that will be made. As already noted, the data collection procedures that will be used include: structured interviews and structured questionnaires. Further, validity and reliability of the study will play a fundamental role in the acceptability of the findings, conclusions and recommendations emerging from the study. Additionally, these methods are intended to help the researcher answer the research questions by deciphering the respondents’ perception and awareness of sleeping patterns and the link obesity has with such patters. On the other hand, the justification of mixed method in finding the relation between the two variables borrows the research conducted by Borghese et al. (2015) who noted that when research adopts mixed method then the research will be able to select samples of respondents for different phases of data collections.

The need to incorporate both closed ended and open ended in questionnaires enhance the findings of the research as it provides an avenue for understanding information that is already known (Tzischinsky, 2016; Fatima and Mamun, 2015). As a result of what this study considers to be evidence-based researches, the adoption of closed and open ended questions have been integrated in the study to enable the research conceptualise various phases of the study. Additionally, adoption of semi-structured interviews has been preferred to give a better overview of different theories which provide significant relationship between the sleeping patterns and the overall trend of children with obesity among the Aboriginals in Australian Capital Territory regions. As uncertainty is growing predictability over the cause of obesity among children aged between 5 and 15 years, integrating semi-structured interviews provide vital approach for comparing quantitative and qualitative data from respondents with a view to integrating such with research problem.

Still on semi-structured interviews, the tool provides the option of strengthening the validity and reliability of the research. This is primarily due to the fact that it provides an opportunity through which, when the same data sets are entered, the same results will be achieved. This helps to increase the reliability and validity of the research. Semi-structured interviews will also ensure that the results achieved can be verified and will contribute towards strengthening the overall issues and highlight the manner in which the research was carried out. Pilot testing has been found in studies such as Chuang et al. (2015) to be an attribute of semi-structured interviews that further plays a role enhancing reliability and validity of the research. In this research, pilot testing will entail the incorporation of small number of respondents from Australian Capital Territory regions before the process of data collection is administered in accordance with the guidelines the research shall have designed. To further strengthen research reliability investigator triangulation will be conducted by engaging studies and scholars outside the scope of the research. That is, there will be involvement of individual researchers who will be tasked with re-assessing the data collections and instrument re-evaluation to ensure that they conform to the minimum standard required to ensure reliability.

  1. Process of Data Analysis

According to Misra et al. (2015), data analysisis a mechanism for reducing and organising data to produce findings that require interpretation by the researcher. The scores of the tests will be processed through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software and used in the quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis of the responses involved interpreting each aspect of the rubric according to the respondents’ view. Additionally, descriptive statistics (means and frequencies) will be utilised in the analysis. Along with various references such as SPSS textbooks, a statistician will be engaged to ensure accurate entering of data and correct test usage. Pearson’s Correlation analysis will be employed to decipher the relationship between different variables. The use of SPSS to carry out the quantitative analysis could strengthen the validity and reliability of the research. This approach helps to increase the reliability and validity of the research. SPSS will also ensure that the results achieved can be verified and will contribute towards strengthening the overall issues and highlight the manner in which the research was carried out. Since data collected will be from different sources, the regression analysis such as ANOVA will be carried out to determine the extent to which these variables correlate.

  1. Ethical Considerations

Based on the nature of the study, there are different elements that will constitute ethical considerations. First, the research intends to treat individual participants as autonomous agents. That is, the research will ensure that participants receive a full disclosure of the scope or nature of the study, the benefits and the risks and alternative that will be associated with the research. This will further provide an opportunity for the participants to ask questions. Secondly, we recognise that there will be need to protect persons with diminished autonomy. We recognise participants with diminished autonomy to be students in the university. As a result, we will design a method that will restrict this group of participants from being coerced to participate

  1. Respondents’ Consent

There is need to seek consent from respondents regarding several issues that will concern questionnaires and the structured interview. To begin, different consents will be given to different institutions including South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance where data regarding trends of obesity among the Aboriginals in Australian Capital Territory regions will be compared with sleeping patterns. On the other hand, the consent of parents and guardian will be acquired before data regarding their children can be gathered, particularly with regard to questionnaire questions. Generally, the consent will be concerned with ensuring that participants voluntarily provide the information.

  1. Privacy and Confidentiality

The identity of all the respondents will be kept anonymous and, in cases where a name will be used in, it will be a pseudonym. Secondly, each participant engaged in this study will do so voluntarily. Consequently, the responses will not be obtained through giving any compensation to the respondents.
Before commencing the interview sessions, each respondent will be briefed on what the research involved. In regard to the questionnaires, the purpose of the study will be highlighted in an opening statement. Finally, the research will give forethought to the maximisation of the benefits but reduction of risks that are likely to occur from the research.

  1. Vulnerable Population Group among the Aboriginals

This research considers Aboriginal children between the ages of 5 and 15 to be vulnerable owing to the fact that they are unable to make some decisions regarding the research topics. This is to mean that there are ethical implications of engaging children of the age in the research. As a result guardians, parents and relevant authorities will have to provide consent so as to administer the research tools for gathering data. The flexibility of the data collection will be ensured by allowing participants to withdraw should they feel the process contravene their beliefs or emotions.

References

Chen, X., Beydoun, M. A., & Wang, Y. (2008). Is sleep duration associated with childhood obesity? A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Obesity, 16(2), 265-274.

Shi, Z., Taylor, A. W., Gill, T. K., Tuckerman, J., Adams, R., & Martin, J. (2010). Short sleep duration and obesity among Australian children. BMC Public Health, 10(1), 1.

Marshall, N. S., Glozier, N., & Grunstein, R. R. (2008). Is sleep duration related to obesity? A critical review of the epidemiological evidence. Sleep medicine reviews, 12(4), 289-298.

Wells, J. C. K., Hallal, P. C., Reichert, F. F., Menezes, A. M. B., Araujo, C. L. P., & Victora, C. G. (2008). Sleep patterns and television viewing in relation to obesity and blood pressure: evidence from an adolescent Brazilian birth cohort. International journal of obesity, 32(7), 1042-1049.

Matricciani, L., Olds, T., & Petkov, J. (2012). In search of lost sleep: secular trends in the sleep time of school-aged children and adolescents. Sleep medicine reviews, 16(3), 203-211.

Liou, Y. M., Liou, T. H., & Chang, L. C. (2010). Obesity among adolescents: sedentary leisure time and sleeping as determinants. Journal of advanced nursing, 66(6), 1246-1256.

Douglas, S. (2016). Relationship between Sleep and Obesity among Children in the Guelph Family Health Study (Doctoral dissertation).

Borghese, M. M., Tremblay, M. S., Katzmarzyk, P. T., Tudor-Locke, C., Schuna, J. M., Leduc, G., … & Chaput, J. P. (2015). Mediating role of television time, diet patterns, physical activity and sleep duration in the association between television in the bedroom and adiposity in 10 year-old children. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12(1), 1.

Tzischinsky, O. (2016). The association between sleeping patterns, eating habits, obesity, and quality of life among Israeli adolescents. Cogent Psychology, 3(1), 1223903.

Fatima, Y., & Mamun, A. A. (2015). Longitudinal impact of sleep on overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: a systematic review and bias‐adjusted meta‐analysis. Obesity Reviews, 16(2), 137-149.

Chuang, J., Fehr, K. K., Ievers-Landis, C. E., Narasimhan, S., Uli, N., & O’Riordan, M. A. (2015). Associations of sleep duration and regularity with level of obesity among youth in a weight loss program. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 1(1), 45.

Misra, S., Khor, G. L., Mitchell, P., Haque, S., & Benton, D. (2015). A pilot study to determine the short-term effects of milk with differing glycaemic properties on sleep among toddlers: a randomised controlled trial. BMC pediatrics, 15(1), 1.