Diet as a key factor in asthma management
Asthma is a chronic lung disease that causes inflammation and narrowing of airways. Pathophysiology of asthma involves airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, intermittent airflow obstruction, and shortness of breath, chest tightness, coughing and wheezing. Diet is an important modifiable factor for development and management of asthma. According to Scott et al (2014) diet is highly becoming identified as modifiable factors to the development and progression of chronic diseases. Significant evidence has come out indicating the significance of dietary intake in the obstructive lung illnesses like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Dietary pattern along with intake of certain nutrients have been assessed both in experimental and observational studies all through disease stages and life stages to explicate their function in respiratory illnesses (Scott et al, 2014).
Mediterranean dietary pattern
Several dietary patterns have been connected the threat of respiratory illnesses. Epidemiological studies have shown that Mediterranean diet possess defensive effects for the allergic respiratory illnesses. The Mediterranean dietary pattern entails an increased intake of modestly processes foods from plants such as fruits, vegetables and cereals, moderate consumption of dairy products such as milk and white meat and low consumption of red meat. Numerous studies have demonstrated that adherence to Mediterranean diet has a inverse association of atopy in children and has a defensive effect on wheezing, atopy as well as asthma symptom (Saadeh et a, l 2013).
Vegetables and fruit consumption has been studied for their probable benefits in connection with respiratory diseases as a result of their nutrient outline comprising of antioxidants, phytochemicals, fibre, vitamins and minerals. Epidemiological evidence examined by Saadeh et al (2013) demonstrated that fruit consumption was connected with a reduced incidence of wheezing and intake cooked green vegetables was connected with a reduced incidence of asthma and wheezing in children aged eight to twelve years.
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from sea sources along with their supplements have been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects through numerous cellular mechanisms entailing their integration in cellular membranes and the resultant altered eicosanoids synthesis. Experimental investigations have demonstrated that long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids minimize production of inflammatory cells such as pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E2, and leukotriene B4 as well as the activity nuclear factor KappaB which is an inflammatory transcription factor(Thies et al, 2010).
Western dietary pattern
The western diet that is rampant in developed nations is distinguished by high intake of grains, red meats, sweets and desserts and dairy products that have high fat. This dietary pattern has been connected with high risk of asthma development and progression in children. In addition, in children, high consumption of fast foods is associated with occurrence of asthma, airway hperresponsiveness and wheezing. In grown-ups, it has been shown that a western diet is positively connected with high incidence of asthma exacerbations, but is not connected to the asthma risk (Wickens et al, 2012).
Thies, F., Miles, A., Powell, J et al. (2010). Influence of dietary supplementation with long-chain n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood inflammatory cell populations and functions and on plasma soluble adhesion molecule in healthy adults. Journal of Lipid, 36, 1183-1193.
Saadeh, D., Salameh, P., Baldi, I., & Raherison C. (2013). Diet and allergic diseases among population aged 0 to 18 years: Myth or reality? Nutrients, 5, 3399–3423
Scott, A., Jensen., E., & Wood G. (2014). Dietary interventions in asthma. Current Pharmaceutical Design,
Wickens, K., Barry, D., & Friezema, A et al. (2012). Fast foods—Are they a risk factor for asthma? Allergy. 60:1537–1541