Assignment 2, answers to questions of my virtal child Essay Example
At 8 months:
What is the philosophy behind «Family Centred Care» and why is it essential in the nursing care of children? What knowledge and skills do the parents/caregivers and the nurses bring to this relationship? What considerations do nurses need to make when working with families from different cultural and religious backgrounds?
As it has been documented in evidence-based researches, the philosophy of family centred care is a mutually beneficial partnership development existing between the family, nurses and other health professionals (Davidoff et al. 2007; Zillmann 2009; Ball, Bindler and Cowen 2010; Ball, Bindler and Cowen 2011). The essentiality of this is to ensure the best outcome of children is promoted when caring for them. The knowledge, skills, and experiences such as communication skills, ability to interact with children effectively and a sense of care and compassion are effective within the context of healthcare and both the child and health professionals. Due to diversifications of the trends with patients handled, the nurse need to consider concerns, and cultural beliefs of members of the child’s family that addresses cultural values and respects diversity.
There are differences between the roles of Paediatric, Child Health and School Nurses. For what reasons would your virtual child come into contact with these particular nurses and in what types of settings?
On the first hand, Paediatric nurse operates within hospital setup engaging in issues such as management of acute illness or the exacerbation of chronic health problems.
On the other hand, Child Health Nurse is home based and in some circumstances s/he operates from designated shire health centres or specialist council. They nurses are expected to be holders of specific qualifications in areas such as maternal and child health, midwifery and immunisation. They key responsibility is to ensure families get extra support and guidance in their own home environment.
School nurse unlike the two, s/he is based in school attending to medical related issues such as cuts and bruises. In some instances, s/he may attend to more severe cases like allergic reactions and management of diabetes.
At 19 months:
What is the definition of «Separation Anxiety»? Why is it important for nurses to be aware of, when nursing a hospitalised child aged 9 months and 18 months of age? What does the term «Attachment» mean?
Separation anxiety is developmental stage whereby a child experiences ‘do not go’ feelings or are anxious due to separations from their primary caregivers (Davidoff et al. 2007). This stage is prevalent when such babies begin to understand that their primary caregivers exist even when they’re not present—«object permanence» (p.25). This stress factor is common with children between the age of 9 to 18 months of age and the best solution to the problem is the introduction of therapeutic play as to support parent’s involvement. On the other hand, attachment is the bonding and emotional connection existing between child and their primary care giver.
The theory of separation anxiety and attachment is essential to nurses as it help them deal with a hospitalized child. For instance, this theory explains three phases a child go through and the best mechanisms needed to avert such. Separation anxiety symptoms such as unreasonable fear of school, protest, despair, and denials can also be dealt with when the theory is applied.
Reflect on your child’s development at 19 months. Did any of the findings surprise you? How does your child’s growth in physical, social-emotional and cognitive areas compare with typical patterns of development (based on Freud, Erickson, Piaget, Kohlburg and Bronfenbrenner)
The developmental stages as witnessed in Audrey augur well with her age. Erikson describes 8 important psychosocial stages and one of such is the second stage dealing with Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt (Erikson 1964). Audrey remains shy around strangers meaning that according to Erikson, she is paranoid of such people. Another notable character is that Audrey remains obsessively orderly with her potty suggesting Fraud’s Anal Stage occurring when children are potty trained. In some instances, she says no when asked to do something meaning Bronfenbrenner’s exosystem level of independence is creeping in (Zillmann 2009).
How might your child’s exploratory opportunities be different if he/she was raised in a different setting, for instance in poverty or in a different culture?
There is strong relationship between child’s exploratory opportunities and background or setting. For instance, for a child to a child to achieve to achieve his or her developmental milestones, proper feeding is essential. If poverty cannot allow proper nutrition then such will affect child’s growth and development. This is the same case with cultural beliefs. Different cultures buy different ideas on how to raise their children and that can greatly affect developmental stages children are supposed to undergo. For instance, there are some cultures where adults do not talk to children freely. This may affect the child’s ability to acquire language.
At 2 years:
Scenario Learning: You are a Child Health Nurse working in a community clinic. A mother presents to clinic with her 2.5 year old boy. She is concerned about his behaviour and his tantrums. He does not follow direction and will answer «No» to all questions asked. What would you discuss with this mother in light of your knowledge on child development and «Typical Toddler» behaviour?
At 2.5 years, there are different and very unique developmental stages that are associated with the boy. For instance, failing to take directions and always answering everything as no shows Vygotsky’s developmental phase where the boy wants to be independent or gain some self-control rather than being pushed up and down (Zillmann 2009). While it is not acceptable to allow everything that the boy tends to do, it is advisable that the mother allow her self-expression as this will foster autonomy and self-discovery. Giving the boy reasonable freedom helps him learn from others.
At 3 years:
What threats to your virtual child’s health and safety will you likely face? How will your environment influence this?
There are a number of health related threats that affect children at the age of 3. Illnesses such as chickenpox, colds, and diarrhoea and constant fevers are commonly associated with this age. Illnesses such as colds and diarrhoea can well be prevented if the environment under which Audrey operates is kept clean and free from health hazards. On the other hand, Audrey can also be immunised against diseases such as measles.
At 4 years:
Using textbook and information learned through the program to identify three different theories or theorists who have influenced my parenting style (e.g. social learning, Bowlby, Ainsworth, Piaget, Behaviorism, Vygotsky, Bronfenbenner, Erikson). Giving three specific examples of parenting decisions made with my child. Describe how each example would fit (or not fit) with one of the three theorists/theories identified.
The three identifies theorist are; Sigmund Fraud with Phallic stage, Erikson Initiative versus Guilt stage and Piaget’s Preoperational stage. Beginning with Fraud’s phallic stage, Audrey identifies difference in opposite sex and therefore tendency and desire to possess the opposite-sex parent. Basing her behaviours such as cycling, playing ball, and interest in computer games, Erikson’s second stage of child development (Initiative versus Guilt stage) best suits the situation. This is seen as Audrey initiate and directs her play—indication of assertion of power and control over the world. Lastly, Audrey still shows some egocentrism which is in line with wit «Preoperational stage» of Piaget’s theory.
At 6 years:
How will the environment that you provide to your virtual child influence his or her IQ? What impact would a different environment have on your child?
By providing a safe, nurturing but slightly disciplined home environment supports Audrey with her learning ability. Also a balanced diet, enough sleep/rest and exercises will support optimal development. Without the above support Audrey’s foundation to develop a high IQ would not be feasible.
At 8 years:
How is your child developing in terms of physical, cognitive, social, and personality development?
Audrey is developing well, above average and in accordance with developmental milestones and stages suggested by the above theorists. The same support should be maintained.
At 10 years:
Child’s aggressive behaviour at school resulting from too much time spent on a war game that a new friend has lent him. What links could this new friend and violent game have on your child’s behaviour at school?
Studies indicate that children exposed to violent video games become numb or “immune” or numb to the horror of violence. If this continues for some time they imitate the violence they see, and even become more aggressive towards others with greater exposure to violence (Kleinginna and Kleinginna 2009). This is why Audrey might become socially violent.
At 12 years:
Describe physical, behavioural and cognitive changes in the child as puberty approaches. Be sure to use specific examples in your response.
Physically, Audrey is developing into a young woman with her hips broadening. She starts to show early signs of sexual maturity. Behaviourally, she is concentrating on her looks and buying new cloths to add to her wardrobe. She has become moody and sometimes refraining from discussing such moods with the mother. Cognitively, Audrey has developed a greater wisdom of action opposed to consequences.
At 15 years:
List of the common risk taking behaviours for a teenager and why these occur? Reliable resources that a nurse could direct or provide a parent of a child who is exhibiting these identified behaviours.
At 15 years, Audrey falls in the category of teenagers engaging in risk taking, impulsivity and novelty seeking. Some of these behaviours include:
Abusing drugs such as alcohol and tobacco
Trespassing or vandalism
Reliable resources that can help the parent are the internet and professional counsellor.
At 16 years:
How important have your teen’s relationships with peers been to his/her social development, emotional well-being and school achievement from 14-16 years of age?
Peers and teens that are well behaved do have a good influence on Audrey. On the other hand Audrey tried to identify herself and was at times misled by few troubled teens.
At 18 years:
In your state, look at what age your Virtual Child transitions into an adult public health care system. What community resources and health promotion activities would an adolescent need to be made aware of? List what adverse outcomes could result from a poorly transitioned adolescent into an adult care environment.
Services that are available through the Medicare system and local community health system are;
Education and support should be offered to teens for a smooth transition into adulthood.
Ball, J. W., Bindler, R.C & Cowen, K. J. (2011). Clinical Skills Manual for Child Principles of Pediatric Nursing: Caring for Children. (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.
Ball, J. W., Bindler, R. C. & Cowen, K.J. (2010). Child Health Nursing: Partnering with children and families. (2nd ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Eduction Inc.
Davidoff, F., Haynes, R., Sackett, D. and Smith, R. (2007). Evidence-based medicine. British
Erikson E: Insight and Responsibility. Norton, New York, 1964.
Kleinginna, P. R., and Kleinginna, A. M. (2009). Acategorized list of emotion definitions,
with suggestions for a consensual definition. In H. Thomae (Ed.), Motivation und
Emotion. Band 1: Theorien und Formen der
Motivation [Motivation and emotion. Vol. 1: Theories
and forms of motivation] (pp. 345-355). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.
Zillmann, D. (2009). “Mood management through communication choices.”
Behavioral Scientist, 31, 327- 340.
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