Applications Modelling and Development. Essay Example

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Software Requirements Specification in this project is done with the IEEE standard in mind. The library information system to be developed will serve the entire university population of student and university employees.

The system will adopt Model-driven development techniques. A model is a picture that represents reality. In these model-driven development techniques, models will be drawn to define the library systems requirements and system designs. Hence the model shall be the design blueprint for developing final library system.

Requirements Gathering Techniques and Justification

A requirement gathering strives to acquire an insight into the system users and their potential usage of the system. The usefulness of requirement gathering technique is determined by its need and the kind of advantages it offers in a given project.

Requirements elicitation

Elicitation means to bring out. Requirements elicitation will be the first step in coming up with the SRS, it has a purpose of which is to determine what the library system users want to have built. This shall involve analysis of existing systems or background reading. The documents to be studied include previous system development documents, manuals, requirements documents and internal memos.

The project will use questionnaire surveys to gather information from several users in order to save time and manager constrained budget. These surveys will allow users to choose from the given options, disagree or agree, rate applications among others. The survey will give qualitative guidance to the product development.

Document Analysis

This is one of the most important requirements gathering technique. The project team will evaluate the documentation of the present system in order to map the system gaps and areas of improvement. The team shall determine the requirements that drove building of the current system; this will be the beginning point for documenting all current requirements.

Once the analysis of the current system is completed the development team will be able to identify what is used, not used, or missing. Similarly, the current system will be studied to determine what works well and what does not work well.


The library system development will use interviews on library system users in order to know their expectations and capture their inputs. Interviewing is adopted as a tool for facts finding in this project because it is a direct face-to-face conversation between the developer and the users. The developer obtains answers to questions he asks the interviewee. He/she gets the interviewee’s suggestions and recommendations that will assist during the design of the proposed system. The analyst can also frame questions differently to individuals depending on their level of understanding. Similarly, the analyst can observe non-verbal communication from the respondents. Here the response rate tends to be very high and it provides immediate response hence the analyst can get detailed facts from each respondent.

Reassurance is also very important. The intervieweewill be reassured that his/her understanding of the system and questions answered has been understood, recorded and adopted.

Joint Application Development (JAD)

Joint application development (JAD) emphasizes on participative development among system owners, users, designers, and builders. This library system will adopt Joint application development (JAD) in order to effectively bring together system owners, students, librarians, university management, analysts and designers to jointly define and design systems.

User stories

User Stories is a concept used majorly in eXtreme Programming (XP) as defined by Kent Beck. This concept was basically defined to support iterative and incremental system development approach.

User stories will be adopted in the library system development project in order to build a useable product, incorporate all functionalities, values and make good priority decisions. User Story will be very crucial as the project progresses since most of the needed deliverables identified in the user story will result in clarity and effective implementation.

The user stories will also provide details with which the library system users and the developers will confirm whether the system requirements meets user needs and expectations. .

Examples of User stories

  1. As a student I want to check my loan status so that I can know how many books I can still borrow and avoid penalties.

  2. As a librarian I would want to know how many courses a student is taking so that I can know the number of books to issue.

  3. As a librarian I would want to know the books frequently borrowed so that I can request from public library.


  1. The library system should be able to calculate borrowers fines based on number of days exceeded.

  2. The system should be able to send alert message to borrowers whose books are due for return.

  3. The system should be able to notify the librarian on student with pending fines and block such borrowers from taking more books.

  4. The system should be able to search and display books that are frequently borrowed to ensure the librarians issue them on short loan.

  5. The system Interfaces shall be user friendly and compliant to safety requirements

  6. Reliability, Security and Privacy shall be highly considered.

.Data collected and how it was used.

The information gathered will be documented, analysed, validated and presented in form of models as it is managed throughout the project life cycle.

The information gathered from background study will help in understanding the organization and its operations before the users are met and interviews conducted.


Use Case diagram

The use-case diagram depicts a collection of use cases, actors, their associations, and optionally a system boundary box.  When analysis modelling a use case diagram can be used to depict the business functionality, at a high-level, that your system will support.  It can also be used to depict the scope of the various releases of your system via the use of color or system boundary boxes.

There are three actors namely Student, Librarian and the System. The student can borrow an item, return, pay fine and check status. The librarian can search an item, add book, update book, and request items from public libraries and print receipt. Similarly, since a librarian is an employee, he/she can also borrow a book, return and pay fine for late returns. The system is to get results for a search, calculate penalty and send alert messages for overdue items borrowed.

Applications Modelling and Development.

Use Case Diagram

Context diagram (level 0 DFD)

Level 0 DFD clearly depicts data flows, the system scope and entities. The DFD in this library system project will show the data stores, movement of data within the system and movement of data between processes and entities. 

Applications Modelling and Development. 1

Level 0 DFD

Definitions, Acronyms, and Abbreviations

  1. DFD Data Flow Diagrams

  2. SRS Software Requirements Specification

  3. JAD Joint Application Development

  4. SDLC System Development Lifecycle

Future Requirements

The system shall consider risk management as a core area in its requirements identification. This will enable the project owner to control risks and other associated issued with development process. This shall identify the potentials hazards and risks that may occur, plan on how their occurrence can be prevented and monitor development of the system in order to control risks.


Kendall, Kenneth E. and Kendall, Julie E. (1992) Systems Analysis and Design, New Jersey; Prentice Hall.pp325-385.

Kendall, E.K. and Kendall, J.K. (2011) “Systems Analysis and Design”, 8th (Global) Edition, Pearson Education.

Martin Fowler and Kendall Scott. (2005) UML Distilled, A Brief Guide to the Standard Object

Modeling Language. New Jersey; Prentice Hall.

Wielder holds, Gio (1993) Database design 2nd Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.