Answering questions Essay Example
In a team, size is mainly the number of team members. The size of the team increases with the increase on the number of members. Diversity is the difference that the members have from each other. An example of diversity is the level of experience or the culture of the individual members (Samson, & Daft, 2015). Roles are the responsibility that a member has to play in team defines the position of a member.
Substitutes for leadership is mainly situations that makes leadership unnecessary for the subordinates. An example of substitute for leadership involves unambiguous and routine tasks where all the subordinates are performing manual tasks. Neutralizes involves situations that constrains formal leadership to carry out their roles effectively, for instance, operational autonomy by the subordinates.
Maintaining the employees can be carried out by providing them with attractive compensation and remuneration packages. Allowances can be provided to carter for various needs of the employees and hence retaining them. The terms of service should also ensure that employees sign a contract to work for the company for a specified number of years. This will make it difficult for the employees leave once they have signed the contract.
Channel richness involves the amount of information that can be transmitted from one person to the other during communication. Communication can be done using various channels between the managers and employees. This can be attributed to various factors including the inability of the channel to handle many kinds of cues all at once, inability to allow quick feedback in both directions and inability to allow for personal focus to develop during the communication.
Outsourcing is considered a total quality management technique as it enables the organization to compare its performance with that of the company or employees that have been outsourced. The comparison of the performance can lead to improvements by the company hence making it a total quality management technique (Samson, & Daft, 2015). Benchmarking is also useful in enabling the company to understand its position as compared to the organizations. It is through benchmarking that the organization is able to compare with the best and determine its performance.
Performance appraisal involves the documentation and evaluation of the job performance of an employee (Samson, & Daft, 2015). Performance appraisal has a lot of benefits as well as potential complications.
Performance appraisal enables an organization to understand the level of achievement of employees. It facilitates communication between the employees and the management leading to improved performance (Samson, & Daft, 2015). Performance appraisal promotes trust between the management and the employees. The training needs for the employees can be determined through appraisal. However, it also has some complications as it may be difficult to assess performance in some types of work. Determining the relationship between individual job performance and the organizational performance is at times difficult. The nature of some work makes it difficult to assess the actual performance of the employees.
In conclusion, it is evident that performance appraisal is important due to its benefits. It is however affected by the complicated nature of some types of jobs.
Controlling is an important function of the managers. The control is important in ensuring that the goals and objectives of the organization are met (Samson, & Daft, 2015). Various types of control can be used by the managers.
Feedforward control mainly focuses on regulation of inputs in order to ensure that the required standards are met. This type of control allows the managers to prevent problems (Samson, & Daft, 2015). However, it requires a lot of time and accurate information which may be difficult to develop. Concurrent control is mainly applied when activities are in progress. This control is beneficial in ensuring that the employees are able to produce the correct results when carrying out their duties. It however requires a thorough understanding to the activities. Feedback control mainly focuses on the output of the organizations. Its disadvantage is its inability to prevent errors.
In conclusion, there are various control types that can be utilized by the managers when carrying out their duties.
Leadership requires different approach in order to achieve the needs of all the stakeholders. The contingency approach as well as the behavioral approach can be utilized by the leaders.
Contingency approach involves the leaders have to consider the organizations as open systems. Balancing of the internal needs and need to adapt to the environment is also required. Contingency approach is also concerned with achieving alignments and good fits (Samson, & Daft, 2015). The leader is also required to consider different situations and provide the most favourable solution. The leadership position determines their authority and power. The behavioural approach involves building a good rapport and interpersonal relations with the subordinates. It also involves supporting and showing concern for the subordinates. A lot of interaction with the subordinates is also utilized in the behavioural approach.
In conclusion, the contingency and behavioural approach can be utilized by the leaders depending on the situation.
Samson, D. & Daft, R. (2015). Fundamentals of Management. 5th edition
. Australia: Cengage Learning.
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