Answer the Questions Essay Example

  • Category:
    Psychology
  • Document type:
    Essay
  • Level:
    Undergraduate
  • Page:
    3
  • Words:
    2018

Answer the Questions

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. In the context of eyewitness testimony, reliability refers to the ability of a witness to:

  • a)  Consistently identify the person of interest as the perpetrator of a crime.

  • b)  Make an identification on the basis of their memory of the perpetrator of the crime.
    (lecture 2)

  • c)  Neither a) or b). 


  • System variables are:

    • a)  Factors that influence the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, but are not under 
the control of the criminal justice system. 


    • b)  Factors that influence the accuracy of eyewitness testimony and are under the control of the criminal justice system. (lecture 2)

    • c)  Both a) and b). 


  • Witnesses are more likely to make absolute judgements when presented with:

    • a)  Sequential identification parades. (Lecture 2)


    • b)  Simultaneous identification parades. 


    • c)  Neither a) or b). 


  • Coerced-compliant false confessions are provided by a person:

    • a)  When they come to believe they likely committed the offence. 


    • b)  Who committed the offence. 


    • c)  To avoid aversive conditions or gain a favourable outcome. 
(lecture 6)

    • d)  In the absence of any external pressure by the police. 


    • e)  None of the above. 


    Student’s Name

    1. Conversation management is a technique for use with:

    • a)  Cooperative witnesses only. 


    • b)  Cooperative persons of interest only.

    • c)  Uncooperative witnesses only. 


    • d)  Uncooperative persons of interest only. 


    • e)  Uncooperative witnesses and uncooperative persons of interest 
(ECU investigative interviewing presentation)

  • Which of the following procedures have been found to increase the suggestibility of child witnesses and decrease the accuracy of their accounts?

    • a)  Direct questions. 


    • b)  Use of non-verbal techniques (e.g. the use of anatomically detailed dolls). 


    • c)  Repeated questions( Lecture 8)

    • d)  Use of stereotypes. 


    • e)  All of the above. 


    1. Which of the following procedural safeguards has been shown to increase bias?

    • a)  Voir dire.

    • b)  Continuance.
      

(lecture 10)

    • c)  Neither a) or b). 


  • The influence of inadmissible evidence is:

    • a)  Greater when it favours the defence. 


    • b)  Greater when it favours the prosecution. 


    • c)  Equivalent irrespective of whether is favours the defence or the prosecution. (lecture 10)

  • In the context of eyewitness testimony, validity refers to the ability of a witness to:

    • a)  Consistently identify the person of interest as the perpetrator of a crime. 


    • b)  Make an identification on the basis of their memory of the perpetrator of the crime. 
(lecture 2)

    • c)  Neither a) or b). 


    1. Estimator variables are:

    • a)  Factors that influence the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, but are not under the control of the criminal justice system (Lecture 2).

    • b)  Factors that influence the accuracy of eyewitness testimony and are under the 
control of the criminal justice system. 


    • c)  Both a) and b). 


  • Witnesses are more likely to make relative judgements when presented with:

    • a)  Sequential identification parades

    • b)  Simultaneous identification parades. 

(Lecture 4)

    • c)  Neither a) or b). 


  • Repression is the:

    • a)  Unconscious ‘removal’ of memories for past events.
      (lecture 2)

    • b)  Genuine forgetting of past events. 


    • c)  Conscious non-reporting of past events. 


    • d)  Purposeful fabrication of past events that did not occur. 


    • e)  None of the above. 


  • Coerced-internalised false confessions are provided by a person:

    • a)  When they come to believe they likely committed the offence. (Lecture 6)

    • b)  Who committed the offence. 


    • c)  To avoid aversive conditions or gain a favourable outcome. 


    • d)  In the absence of any external pressure by the police. 


    • e)  None of the above. 


  • The cognitive interview is a technique for use with:

    • a)  Uncooperative witnesses only. 


    • b)  Uncooperative persons of interest only. 


    • c)  Uncooperative witnesses and uncooperative persons of interest. 


    • d)  Cooperative witnesses only.
      (Lecture 5)

    • e)  Cooperative persons of interest only. 


    1. Schemas are:

    • a)  Cognitive systems that help organise and make sense of information.
      

(Lecture 10)

    • b)  Generalisations about members of social groups that are often prejudicial.

    • c)  Neither a) or b). 


  • Which method of jury research is the most internally valid?

    • a)  Case studies. 


    • b)  Shadow jury studies.
      

(Lecture 11)

    • c)  Mock jury studies.

  • The influence of pretrial publicity is:

    • a)  Greater when it favours the defence. 


    • b)  Greater when it favours the prosecution. 


    • c)  Equivalent irrespective of whether is favours the defence or the prosecution. 
(Lecture 5)

  • The representative heuristic is indicative of a tendency to:


    a) Believe others think as we do.


    b) Ignore base rate data in favour of more prominent information.


    c) Believe the more similar an individual is to typical members of a category, the more likely the individual belongs to the category. (Lecture 10)

    d) None of the above. 


    1. The fundamental attribution error: 


    1. Is a self serving bias.

    
b) Is an attributional bias where our own success might be attributed to dispositional characteristics and the success of others might be attributed to situational characteristics.


    c) Is an attributional bias where dispositional causes are overestimated and situational causes are underestimated.
    (Lecture 2).

    d) None of the above.

    20. Judicial decision making is less prone to personal bias and prejudice.

    b) False 
 (Lecture 5)

    Essay Questions

    Question One: Discuss how police activities influence the flow of processes that make up the justice system.

    The justice system comprises of three different features namely, the police, courts and corrections. The components are interrelated and interdependent. Thus a mistake on one end is catastrophic to the whole system. The case flows from the police into the courts until a verdict is given, the decision of the court affects the correctional facilities as well.

    Police are involved in the justice system because they investigate crimes, search for witnesses, arrests suspects and protect witnesses and victims. After a crime is reported, the police must conduct investigative interviews so as to make an arrest and identify witnesses. They generate a pool of suspects and identify the prime suspect through interview and collection of evidence (Lecture 1). The others can act as witnesses if need be to account and clarify on the truth. Therefore, due to the diverse nature of crimes, police activities influence the flow process of the justice system. An error in the crime report can cause flaws to the whole system, leading to a mistaken verdict.

    In the justice system, the activities of the law enforcement officers affect the entire system because the police are the guards of the system. The officers make the first contact with the accused person as well as the victims of a crime. Therefore, they get to make important decisions about the lives of the affected individuals. The main decision that a law enforcement officer has to make is initiating an alleged offender’s ride through the justice system. As a result, a lot of research and analysis goes into catching the criminal and developing a theory to be presented in court. The findings are based on evidence collected from the scene of the crime and witnesses. After concluding the investigation, the prime suspect is taken to court where the investigating officer presents their evidence against the alleged offender and the court takes over.

    In their day-to-day operations, police influence the daily lives of most citizens more than the other components of the system. In the recent years, police have adopted an interviewing method that is more user friendly. The investigative tools used in the PEACE Model are meant to establish a rapport between the investigator and the interviewee. The method is not intimidating but rather engaging and exploratory. The role of the police in the investigating process is to identify the main suspect and find enough admissible evidence to convict the offender. Therefore, using the PEACE Model is an engaging way of gathering information that impacts on the whole investigation (ECU Investigative).

    Question Two: Discuss how the characteristics of the witness influence the flow of processes that make up the justice system.

    Witnesses are a vital part of the criminal justice system. There are many types of witnesses to help recount and review the evidence. The adversarial justice system requires that the witnesses be accurate and dependable for quality fact-finding. The perception and motivation of a witness influenced their responses. Thus, the witnesses can be either cooperative or hostile.

    The most reliable types of witnesses are the eyewitnesses. These are people who experience the action first-hand as it takes place. The reliability and validity of these witnesses are derived from experiencing the events and thus, they can recount from memory. Additionally, the characteristic of the eyewitness highly influences the reliability of their testimony. A person with a history of drug abuse might find it difficult to encode information or describe the intricate details from memory (Lecture 2). Therefore, the cognitive characteristic of a witness influences the testimonial evidence as well as the flow of the process during a trial.

    Every witness must be competent and credible. The competency of a witness describes their qualification to testify in court. For example, in cases involving minors or vulnerable witness such as lunatics, the court must first establish that the person or child is competent to testify. The prosecutor or judge evaluates the level of intelligence, mental capacity at the time, ability to understand the proceedings, and the age of the person testifying among other characteristics (lecture 8). The aim is to ensure that the person testifying has the mental capacity to do so and they are providing evidence with no undue influence or compulsion. The characteristic of the witness determines whether their testimony is precluded from being heard in court.

    Credibility is also a witness characteristic that highly influences the flow of processes making up the justice system. The trait relates to the quality of the witness giving testimony. The judge or the jury should be able to rely on the evidence and testimony produced by a witness when making the final decision. Therefore, the credibility of a witness influences the process and the outcome.

    Question Three: Discuss how research informs our understanding of jury decision making.

    The jury decision making is based on the evidence presented to them during the trial process. The verdict presented after deliberation directly impacts on many lives. However, only a few people understand the workings of a jury during the decision making process. Jury deliberations are protected by law and masked in secrecy. However, there is research seeking to inform the layman on jury’s decision making. Traditionally, the secrecy of trial deliberation and functioning of the jury was based on speculation. However, researchers and investigators started challenging common assumptions about jury behavior by using mock trials. The experimental research is meant to inform the public on the decision making process and influences of the jurors. Research participants are randomly selected and exposed to similar conditions as a real trial. The mock jury helps in testing hypotheses on the causal manipulators on the behavior of the jury. Thus, in-depth research is used to educate on the deliberation process until a verdict is reached by the team of twelve people.

    Research provides us with information to understand the processes taken by the jury to reach a verdict from the trial. During the trial process, the jury is presented with admissible evidence for easier deliberation and adjudication. Research shows that jurors are persuaded by more than the evidence presented to them in court by witnesses and the victims. Other factors that come into play include the non-verbal cues, physical appearance, and the personality of the person testifying and so on (lecture 10). Thus, during the decision making external factors also influence the jurors.

    Additionally, research informs our understanding by explaining how juror biases work in the courtroom. Studies done after the deliberation of a case concerning the jury decision making and the verdict given show that there are underlying personal characteristics that might predispose a juror towards certain verdicts in certain cases (lecture 11). Racial stereotypes, ethnicity, social attractiveness are all related to juror bias. Studies show that depending on the victim and the perpetrator, some jurors may not have the ability to set aside personal bias and determine a case wholly based on the facts in issue.