Answer the questions Essay Example

  • Category:
    Sociology
  • Document type:
    Essay
  • Level:
    Undergraduate
  • Page:
    3
  • Words:
    1806

REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR TOPIC 1

  1. Rehabilitation is one of the four main goals of the correctional system. What are the other three goals, and what do they aim to achieve?

  • Retribution, incapacitation and deterrence.

  1. What did Robert Martinson (1974) do to investigate the effectiveness of offender rehabilitation programs? What did he conclude?

  • He published a review of the rehabilitation research. He concluded that there was little evidence that rehabilitation programmes had any appreciable effect on recidivism.

  1. Was Martinson right in his conclusions about the effectiveness of offender rehabilitation programs? What alternative conclusions could be drawn from Martinson’s review?

— not right. Some of the alternative conclusions that can be drawn from Martison’s review are:

a) Good theoretical conceptualisation and implementation of many early rehabilitation programs would have been more successful. The programs Martinson had reviewed were carried out between 1945 and 1967, when theories of crime causation and correction were relatively unsophisticated.

b) Martison’s review was based on rehabilitation programmes that had been a result of intuition and moralistic assumptions rather than any tested evidence or theory. If they would have been based on these scientific methods, they would have been right.

c) Rehabilitation programs could be successful if applied based on the individual needs of the offenders rather than treating all the offenders in the same way.

d) There is growing evidence that for some offenders, rehabilitation programs can be at least moderately successful

e) The success of a rehabilitation programme should not be interpreted to strictly mean a complete elimination of recidivism; rather, a more realistic expectation of the programme success should be adopted. For instance, if offenders are able to increase the length of time between offences, or if they are able to reduce the severity of their offences, then this too is some measure of “success”

  1. Why might Martinson’s conclusions about the effectiveness of offender rehabilitation programs have been so appealing to various interest groups concerned with correctional policy?

  • Because rehabilitation was viewed as an enlightened and humanitarian way of dealing with offenders.

  1. What are the main differences between a ‘narrative review’ and a ‘meta-analytic review’?

  • A narrative review relies on intuition and moralistic assumption while a meta-analytic review is based on tested evidence and theory

  1. According to Andrews and Bonta (2003), what are some of the limitations of insight-oriented, psychoanalytic treatment approaches to offender rehabilitation?

— They do not consider individual differences in criminal behaviour

— They do not pay attention to the complexity of human behaviour

-They do not recognize the contribution of personal, interpersonal and social factors involved in the acquisition and maintenance of criminal behaviour.

  1. Why might behavioural and social learning approaches provide a more appropriate basis for offender rehabilitation programs?

  • Because they are individualized, pay attention to the complexity of human behaviour and they acknowledge the contribution of personal, interpersonal and social factors in the commission and maintenance of criminal behaviour.

  1. What do Andrews and Bonta (2003) mean when they say that “an important role for the correctional worker is to serve as an anti-criminal model for clients and as a source of reinforcement for their clients’ anticriminal expressions and efforts” (p.311).

  • they mean that the correctional worker should be a person who can be emulated by the offenders and who is able to reinforce anti-criminal expressions and efforts of the offenders through rewards.

REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR TOPIC 2

  1. What is the ‘risk principle’, and how is this applied in the assessment and treatment of offenders?

  • it is a program that gives priority to the highest-risk offenders. High-risk offenders are provided with high-intensity programs while moderate-risk offenders are provided with medium-intensity programs.

  1. What is the ‘needs principle’, and how is this applied in the assessment and treatment of offenders? What is the difference between ‘criminogenic’ and ‘non-criminogenic’ needs?

— the needs principle is an approach that places much emphasis in the design of programs that target only those factors that have been empirically demonstrated to be related to recidivism. It is applied in the assessment and treatment of offenders by identifying the reliable predictors of recidivism and targeting these factors in the treatment programs.

— Criminogenic needs are factors related to recidivism while non-criminogenic needs are factors that are not related to recidivism but when targeted, may help prepare offenders for offence-focused treatment.

  1. What is the ‘responsivity principle’, and how is this applied in the assessment and treatment of offenders? Give five examples of responsivity factors that may present barriers to therapeutic engagement.

  • The responsivity principle is an approach that places emphasis on designing offender treatment programs that maximize therapeutic engagement with offenders. In this approach, the rehabilitator considers factors that may hinder an individual’s response to interventions. The factors that may affect an individual’s response to intervention are: low intelligence, poor literacy, mental illness, cultural barriers and motivation or treatment readiness.

  1. What do the terms ‘program (or treatment) integrity’ and ‘professional discretion’ mean, and how are these applied in the treatment of offenders?

  • Program integrity refers to the extent to which the program-as-designed matches the program-as-delivered while professional discretion is the adherence to evidence-based, ethical practice. The programs should be well designed and those who deliver the offender treatment programs should not deviate too far from the way the program was designed.

  1. What is the difference between ‘criminogenic needs’ and ‘non-criminogenic needs’? Give three examples of each.

  • Criminogenic needs are factors related to recividism while non-criminogenic needs are factors that are not related to recidivism but when targeted, may help prepare offenders for offence-focused treatment. Examples of criminogenic factors are anti-social attitudes, association with anti-social peer, poor social problem-solving, previous criminal history and substance dependence problems. Examples of non-criminogenic factors are low self-esteem, depression and denial.

  1. What is meant by the terms ‘actuarial’ and ‘clinical’ risk assessment? Why is actuarial risk assessment generally more reliable than clinical risk assessment?

-Actuarial risk assessments are measures of risk that are structured, quantitative and empirically linked to a relevant criterion. Clinical risk assessment are those that deal with psychometric issues. Actuarial risk assessments are generally more reliable than clinical assessment risk assessment because they are structured, quantitative and empirically linked to a relevant criterion.

  1. Why does Bonta (2002) recommend that the use of general personality tests for assessing offenders be limited to the assessment of responsivity?

  • Because offenders are classified along stages of interpersonal maturity and interventions are matched to their respective stages of development.

  1. What does Bonta (2002) mean by the ‘principle of the least restrictive alternative’?

  • The principle of the least restrictive alternative means that punishment of offenders should use the least intrusive measures and only to the extent needed to manage their behaviour.

REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR TOPIC 3

  1. According to Moffit’s (1997) theory of ‘life-course persistent versus adolescence-limited offending’, what do the terms ‘maturity gap’ and ‘social mimicry’ mean?

  • Maturity gap is a behaviour associated with offenders who often come from chaotic home environments, thus experience a gap in their maturity. Social mimicry on the other hand refers to a situation where a child grows up while mimicking the behaviour of people surrounding him or her.

  1. According to Moffit, why do so many adolescents who have become involved in antisocial conduct desist by early adulthood?

  • it is because often, antisocial behaviour peaks in adolescence and early childhood and then steadily declines as most offenders grow out of crime.

  1. What are some of the developmental antecedents of ‘life-course persistent’ offending?

  • Some of the antecedents of life-course persistent offending are chaotic home environments marked by parental conflict and separation, anti-social parents, exposure to violence or abuse and attention or concentration problems at school.

  1. What is parent management training, and why might it be useful in the treatment of children with behavioural problems?

  • Parent management training is a multi-systemic training that focuses on both proximal and distal elements of the youth’s social ecology. It is useful because the behaviour of the youth offender is situated within these systems and is understood to emerge from the interactions between the youth and these systems.

  1. What are some of the strengths and limitations of using psycho-stimulant medication in the treatment of young people with behavioural problems?

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  1. What did the University of Rochester Nurse Home Visitation Program (Olds, et al) involve? What were the main findings for the children at 2-year follow-up? What were the main findings for the mothers at 2-year follow-up?

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REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR TOPIC 4

  1. Social ecology theory asserts that individual behaviour is influenced by the multiple ecological systems in which the individual is embedded. List five levels of an individual’s social ecology and, for each level, identify two risk factors for serious offending.

— The five levels of an individual’s social ecology are:

i) The individual – risk factors at this level are temperament and motivation

ii) The parent – risk factors are social skills and concern

iii) Family – financial resources and basic needs

iv) Peer – individual competencies and abilities of peers and hobbies

v) School – school-wide discipline procedures and cultural and community activities held at school

  1. MST emphasises strength-focused attitudes and interventions. List four ways in which maintaining a strengths-based approach may be beneficial in the treatment of serious youth offenders.

-It fosters cooperation and collaboration by decreasing the untoward effects of negative affect and builds feelings of hope and positive expectations, which are linked with favourable outcomes.

-It helps to identify protective factors that lead to the development of better informed interventions and to solutions that have increased ecological validity and can be sustained by the family over time

-It decreases the therapist and family frustration by emphasizing problem solving

-It strengthens the caregiver’s confidence, which is a prerequisite for empowerment

  1. Why does MST discourage the use of physical discipline by parents?

-Because physical discipline models aggression for the youths who already have problems with aggression. It also disrupts parent-child affective relations.

  1. In MST, what is the difference between ‘overarching goals’ and ‘intermediate goals’? Give two hypothetical examples of each.

-overarching goals are the family’s ultimate aims by the end of the treatment, for example having the youth pass to the 10th grade and having the youth change from aggression to a more appropriate behaviour. Intermediate goals are the daily nuts and bolts of reaching the overarching goals, for example, studying for exams and completing homework assignments.

  1. According to MST, why is it important that intervention are ‘developmentally appropriate’?

-because individuals have different needs at different periods of their lives, hence, interventions should be designed in consideration of such

  1. What is the average time required for an MST intervention? How often would the MST therapist typically have contact with the family during this time?

-most interventions, when applied appropriately, can be expected to begin to have positive results within a short time (1-2 weeks at the most). During this time, the MST therapist has contact with the family on a daily basis.