Answer question Essay Example

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(1)   You have worked in two IP’s. Now think as a manager and answer these questions: What are the main alternatives to job specialization?  And which alternative(s) do you consider to be the most beneficial to ensure that the organisation operates effectively?

Main alternatives to job specialisation:

  • Job rotation

  • Job enlargement

  • Job enrichment

  • Job characteristics

  • Work teams

The alternatives that I consider to be most beneficial to ensure that an organisation operates effectively are job characteristics and work teams. This is because the job characteristics model involves diagnosing and improving jobs in accordance with work systems and employee preferences. This incorporates skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Increasing the presence of these dimensions leads to higher motivation, better performance and higher satisfaction as well as lower absenteeism and turnover because employees are assigned tasks that they prefer and are therefore likely to do very well. This is not the case for job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment where employees may be given new tasks but which they do not like or are likely to get bored with quickly. Work teams also work well because they consider the different needs and preferences of their members, they facilitate involvement, and are autonomous.

(2)  Managers work in different capacities. (i) List the various levels of managers’ function and responsibilities. How can managers foster team work in the hospitality industry. How can managers stimulate and encourage staff contribution   

Various levels of managers’ function and responsibilities: 

Senior management: This is concerned with the overall direction and competitiveness of an organisation. The management makes plans that revolve around the strategic or long-term future of the organisation. To stimulate and encourage staff contribution, managers should select employees who can fit well in their respective teams, train employees to become team players, and rework reward systems to encourage cooperative efforts while at the same time continuing to recognise individual contributions.

Middle management: This level of management has the responsibility of the short-term functioning of an organisation. It also co-ordinates the different operations of the organisation.

First line management: This level of management ensures that the jobs gets done

Managers can foster team work in the hospitality industry by overcoming individual resistance to team membership, countering the influence of individualistic cultures, and introducing teams in organisations that historically valued individual achievement.

 (3) What are some of the opportunities an increasingly diverse and multicultural workforce offers with respect to potential performance gains in organizations?

  • Multiple perspectives on issues

  • Greater interest in new ideas

  • Multiple interpretations of issues

  • Enhanced creativity

  • Enhanced flexibility

  • Better problem solving skills

1. What is control in an organisation and outline the steps in the controlling process

Control refers to the regulation of organisational activities so that the targeted level of performance remains within satisfactory limits

Steps in the controlling process:

  1. Establishing standards

  2. Measuring performance

  3. Comparing performance and standards

  4. Evaluating performance and taking action

What is the difference between a Bureaucratic, Democratic and Laissez Faire leadership styles2.

A bureaucratic leadership style is where the leader leads by strictly relying on an organisation’s set rules, regulations and procedures to make decisions.

A democratic leadership style is where the leader shares the decision-making responsibility. The leader consults with the group members and solicits their participation in making decisions and resolving problems that affect them.

A laissez faire leadership style refers to a hands-off approach where the supervisor essentially performs as little leading as possible. All authority is delegated to the employees, and the leader relies on the employees to make decisions, establish goals and solve problems.

Define what is a strong organisational culture and how would you maintain the strong organisation culture3.

A strong organisational culture is an organisational culture in which the organisation’s core values are held strongly and shared widely. To maintain a strong organisational culture, the leadership of an organisation must establish and maintain appropriate core values. The leadership must influence all employees to adhere to the set core values.

What is the role of a manager and their task? Do you think organisations see lesser of employees against profit or on technology against entrepreneurship?4.

A manager plays three role categories: interpersonal role, informational roles, and decisional roles. Interpersonal roes include acting as a figurehead, leader and link in the organisation. Informational roles include monitoring, disseminating information and acting as a spokesperson for the organisation. Decisional roles include acting as an entrepreneur, managing disturbances, allocating resources, and negotiating.

In my view, organisations do not see lesser of employees against profit since it is employees who determine the level of profitability of organisation through their service delivery. Similarly, organisations do not see lesser of technology against entrepreneurship because the two hand-in-hand. For instance, new technologies like smartphones enhance entrepreneurship like creation of apps while app creators benefit when more smartphone users are able to buy more apps.

 What is delegation and what is involved in being a successful delegator?5.

Delegation is the process of devolving authority in an organisation. For a delegator to be successful, he or she must give team members the responsibility to accomplish job objectives, grant authority to make decisions and take actions to attain the expected outcomes, and ensure accountability for accomplishing those results.

1.  List the 10 leadership traits.

  • Self-confidence

  • Desire to influence others

  • Intelligence

  • Honesty and integrity

  • Intelligence

  • Dependability

  • Decision maker

  • Creativity

  • Ethical and moral

2. Describe and briefly discuss Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory and Herzberg’s two factor theory as they relate to job satisfaction and motivation in the hospitality industry

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory states that people’s needs can be arranged in a ranking or hierarchy of importance, and that once a need has been satisfied, it ceases to motivate an individual. According to this theory, when one need is relatively fulfilled, another emerges to replace it. The needs are can be arranged in a pyramid starting at the bottom physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and with self-actualization needs at the top. In the hospitality industry, employees will for instance need to satisfy their basic physiological needs such as basic pay, but once this is met, they will pursue safety need such as better working conditions, job security; followed by social needs such a participation in company-sponsored events; esteem needs like promotion; and finally, self-actualisation needs like learning new skills on the job, seeking growth and so forth.

Herzberg’s two factor theory states that people have two sets of needs: motivation needs and hygiene needs. Hygiene needs are associated with the psychological and physical context in which work is performed and include supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations, pay and security, company policies and so forth. Motivation needs are related to the work itself and how challenging the task is. They include nature of the work, achievement, recognition, responsibility and advancement and growth.

When hygiene factors are not met, for instance if the working conditions are poor, employees in the hospitality industry will be dissatisfied. The opposite is true. Similarly, if employees get motivation needs such as prospects of career growth while working with a certain organisation, they will be satisfied. The opposite is true, i.e. employees will be dissatisfied if the company does not offer them prospects for career advancement and growth.

3. What is Empowerment? What are the two norms of empowerment?

Empowerment is a strategy used by participative leaders in organisations to share decision-making power with members of teams.

The norms of empowerment are:

  • It enables employees to be more accountable over their decisions, work and use of resources.

  • Employees feel a greater sense of ownership in, and accountability for organisational outcomes.

4. Define and illustrate the four functions of Management

Management refers to the process of planning, organising, leading and controlling the use of resources to accomplish performance goals.

The four functions of management are:

  • Planning: This involves setting performance goals and deciding how to achieve them.

  • Organising: This entails arranging tasks, people and other resources to accomplish the work.

  • Leading: This involves inspiring people to work hard to attain high performance.

  • Controlling: This entails measuring performance and taking action to ensure that the desired results are achieved.