ANNOTATED PORFOLIO OF REPRESENTATIONS

  • Category:
    Education
  • Document type:
    Assignment
  • Level:
    Undergraduate
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    1478

Rape in Higher Institutions

Introduction

Rape, notably in higher learning institutions has been a challenge in the contemporary society. There is no aspect of violence and crime as fraught with misconception as that of sexual violence. Evidently, the most telling indication of the level to which sexual violence is seen through divergent veil of myth is the following paradox: In the various crime levels, as measures by sentencing laws, rape essentially tanks only second to homicides, and some instance it is recorded higher. The National Network statistics reveal that in the United States someone is raped in every two minutes and chances are four times higher in college female students compared to other age group. The gender socialization is instrumental in creating rape myths and also leads to perpetuate a rape culture that is often depicted in the higher learning institutions. Rape myths are false but strong beliefs and stereotypes concerning the forced sexual intercourse (Carey et al., p. 680). These myths encompasses beliefs such as women or college girls who dress in seductive manner are attracting rape or when women regret a sexual intercourse, they term that as rape. It is a popular myth that women lie about rape but the truth is 2% of rape cases reported are falsely reported (Carey et al., p. 680).

Cases of rape within institutions of higher learning have been on a steady increase. This is a worrying pattern for two reasons. First, school is supposed to empower young women. There is no way young women are going to be empowered if they are at a high risk of being raped in the same institution that is meant to give them hope and a bright future through education. Second, it seems campus colleges are slowly being turned into criminal dens for drug peddling, excessive consumption and abuse of alcohol. Literature from the three articles below seem to suggest that school administrators are to be partly blamed for this continued vice for their failure to take action, either preventive or curative, in trying to combat this vice. It is also unfortunate to note that there is also an increase of acquaintance rape within institutions of higher learning. Young college girls are being rape either by colleagues, lecturers or at least people who are well known to them. One common contributing factor that appears to be mentioned in the three articles is that sexual violence seems to be related to alcohol consumption. It seems that where cases of alcohol abuse are reported, there is high likelihood of sexual offences being perpetrated against female students. . From the articles, it is also apparent that among all forms of sexual violence, rape predominantly takes the trophy as the most perpetrated crime. There are also other forms of sexual violence that appear very subtle. They include sexual crimes that are categorized as having been ‘attempted’ but not fully committed by the perpetrators. Then there is visual and verbal sexual abuse that seldom goes unnoticed, and yet young women fall victim of this particular forms on a daily basis. There is urgent need to deal firmly with this vice in institutions of higher learning. Perpetrators must serve long and hard terms in jail in order to save the young women generation. This retrospect paper seeks to understand the concept of rape cases in the society.

Analysis of Representation

Fernandez, Sarah and Houlemarde, Mark “How to Progress From a Rape-Supportive Culture” Women in Higher Education (2012). Print

Campus sexual assault in the United States is well known as sexual assault of a student enrolling an institute of higher learning. The United States Department of Justice calls sexual assault as any act of sexuality that occurs without consent of the recipient. Various studies have concluded that not less than 47% of college students’ sexual assaults are associated with alcohol or drug abuse. Prevention efforts have been put across to change this culture where laws have been tightened. This has bore fruits as most colleges in the U.S have come under federal investigation and this has rendered to the number of reported cases rising up to 44%.

Kelly, Conor. “Sexism in Practice: Feminist Ethics Evaluating the Hookup Culture.” Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, 28.2 (2012): 27

This article gives insight on the issue of hookup culture that is prevalent in the higher learning institutions and how it positions college girls at greater risk of rape and sexual assault. The author explains the issue of hook up culture in details and the components of the United States culture. Conor Kelly believes that hooking up in campus is a culture that highly promotes rape and sexual assault. He defines hooking-up as the act of pursuing sexuality with absence of relationship. The notion of most women is to hook up without intercourse which is contrary to many men whose initial notion is to pursue the woman to engage the women into sexual activity (Kelly, 2012).

Phillips, Joshua. “Engaging Men and Boys in Conversations About Gender Violence: Voice Male Magazine Using Vernacular Rhetoric as Social Resistance.” The Journal of Men’s Studies, 20.3 (2012): 259.

Philips focuses mainly on men and the belief that rape supportive-culture is based on them to quell gender based violence. Philip Joshua argues that the culture should shift their blame on the women stereotypes of perpetuating rape to men responsibility. The culture has prioritized the man and has made him dominate the society. This is a problem especially when boys grow up in this culture and are wired to accept these roles and proceed to perpetuate rape supportive culture. This article underscores the essence of changing the mentality of the boy child and giving him the mandate to change this culture. In order to remind the people that men are to be held responsible for these acts, it employs phrases like “men violence against women” instead of “violence against women.”

Bonny, Sidcher., Francis, Cullen. And Michael, Turner. The sexual victimization of

college women. U.S. Department of Justice. 2000. Print

The growing attention on sexual victimization of college women has come as a result of a realization that college campuses have subtly been turned into dens of criminal activities (Fischer et al, 1). The types of rape perpetrated in colleges include; completed rape, attempted rape, completed sexual coercion, attempted sexual coercion, completed sexual contact with force or threat of force, completed sexual contact without force, attempted sexual contact with force or threat of force (Fischer et al, 8). The most disheartening part of sexual victimization on campus colleges is that the perpetrators are in most cases known to their victims

Preventing alcohol-related problems on campus: Acquaintance Rape.” Education Development Centre. 1997. Print

The prevalence of acquaintance rape in institutions of higher learning is partly fuelled by the lack of preventive measures on the part of school administrators. Failure to punish perpetrators essentially leads to misleading attitudes such as; thinking that rape and alcohol consumption go together, that sex can be forced upon a woman and that schools in general do not care about the imminence of this problem (Hecaopd, 3). In order the correct this problem, school administrators are called upon to set up prevention programs that will be funded and adequately staffed in order to offer support to young women in colleges (Hecaopd, 9).

Claire, McCatskill. 2014. “Sexual violence on campus: How too many institutions of higher learning are failing to protect students.” United States Senate. 2014. Print

It is unfortunate that many institutions are failing to comply with laws meant to prevent sexual harassment (McCaskill p. 1). This failure to comply is also extended to their failure to observe “best practices” in handling cases of sexual violence among students. The shortfalls in this endeavour include; lack of knowledge concerning the scope of the sexual violence problem, failure to inform victims of the need to report cases of sexual violence, inadequate training on sexual violence, lack of investigation of reported cases as well as inadequate training on law enforcement among others.

Work Cited

Bonny, Sidcher., Francis, Cullen. And Michael, Turner. The sexual victimization of

college women. U.S. Department of Justice. 2000. Print

Claire, McCatskill. 2014. “Sexual violence on campus: How too many institutions of higher learning are failing to protect students.” United States Senate. 2014. Print

Fernandez, Sarah and Houlemarde, Mark “How to Progress From a Rape-Supportive Culture” Women in Higher Education (2012). Print

Kate, Carey., Sarah, Durney.,Shepardson, Robyn, Carey, Michael. “Incapacitated and Forcible Rape of College Women: Prevalence Across the First Year.” Journal of Adolescent Health, 56 (2015) 678-680.

Kelly, Conor. “Sexism in Practice: Feminist Ethics Evaluating the Hookup Culture.” Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, 28.2 (2012): 27

Phillips, Joshua. “Engaging Men and Boys in Conversations About Gender Violence: Voice Male Magazine Using Vernacular Rhetoric as Social Resistance.” The Journal of Men’s Studies, 20.3 (2012): 259.

“Preventing alcohol-related problems on campus: Acquaintance Rape.” Education Development Centre. 1997. Print