Annotated bibliography Essay Example

Intelligence Integration : Security and Policing

Annotated Bibliography

Brian, J., Integrated Policing in Action , Royal Canadian Mounted Police 2002

Brian outlines the reaction of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police were affected by the events of 9/11/01.This was a renewal of a commitment to integrated , collaborative counter-intensive action. Up until that time say Brian, national security had been separated from normal law enforcement. Not so any longer. There has been a bringing down of old established barriers and new relationships built. The article explains how many different departments of government are involved.

Carter,D. Law Enforcement Intelligence: A Guide for State,Local and Tribal Law, 2004, School of Criminal Justice, Michigan State University,

This document is very American community policing specific. It comes from a man who has a doctorate, and is university based therefore can be considered reliable. The aim is to enable someone to make use of state of the art law enforcement intelligence. 1It is very much concerned with information security and the need to maximise effectiveness.

Chalk,P. and Rosenau,W., Confronting the ‘Enemy Within’: Security Intelligence, the Police, and Counterterrorism in Four Democracies, 2004, U.S.A., Rand Corporation,

This is a fairly recent full length book supported by the well-respected Rand Corporation, who have published many articles on similar topics. The book looks at security intelligence in 4 countries, considering such things as relevant legislation, how information is disseminated and the strengths and weaknesses of the methods used. Peter Chalk is a senior political scientist with the Rand Corporation, and William Rosenau has written or contributed to several books on the subject of counter insurgency, so these are well accredited, scholarly writers whose opinions and statements can be valued as relevant.

Chalk and Rosenau make the point2that if agencies have no law enforcement role they are better able to devote time to information gathering, rather than dealing with things in a case-by-case method which ties up resources. Presumably they then must pass on relevant information to those law agencies who can attempt to deal with any perceived threats. It is therefore obviously necessary that systems must be integrated so that the law enforcers can obtain data when required.

Gips, M., ‘Data: Today Pre-emptive , Tomorrow Predictive’, Security Management, Volume 50, Issue 2, February 2006,

This is a very short, only one page, relatively recent article. This short length should mean that it is more likely to be up to date and relevant than a long and complicated work. Also in such a short piece every word and sentence is important. The main point of this article is found in the very first line:-

Collecting data is all well and good, but the real question is how multiple data points can be intelligently reviewed to help security personnel make better decisions in real time.

This is something which sometimes seems to be almost overlooked when technology use is so frequent and widespread that masses of data accumulate, most of which will never be looked at again. The article is concerned with the perceptions of patterns so that predictions can be made and is thus very much up to date with current approaches.

National Security for Aviation Security, Air Domain Surveillance and Intelligence Integration Plan, 26th March 2007, U.S.A. Government

This is a report with regard to American aviation security and is to do with deterring and preventing breaches to that safety. It is concerned with policies, subsequent guidelines and their implementation. It is therefore an important paper and can be assumed to be a reliable record of these policies etc. It considers a number of things that are important to homeland security such as aviation transportation and responses to possible threats. The date is important as this is several years after the World Trade catastrophe. The authors ( unnamed) will be experts in their field and presumably the paper was checked by their peers, but is not a normal peer reviewed journal article. The paper covers a number of different aspects but it is pointed out in the foreword that the various plans are integrated , mutually dependent and complementary.

Ratcliffe, J., Intelligence-led policing, Australian Institute of Criminology, number 248, post 2002

Undated, yet authoritative. The author believes that there is confusion among security officers as to what is meant by ‘intelligence led policing and stresses the need for a common understanding of what is required. He also points out that it is a response to problems rather than an initiative to prevent what might occur for the first time.

Security and Surveillance, Athena Global, 2004

This Canadian paper has no named author which takes away from its authority. Page 2 gives details of the many different agencies involved. Although various topics are mentioned the paper is too short to give details, but the links and references led to much more knowledge.

Space and Security Policy in Europe , Executive Summary, Instituto Affairi Internazionali, 2003

Put together by experts from various western European states and all from authoritative institutions. Unlike the other documents this is concerned with space security. The stress is on the need for a ‘European ‘ approach i.e. an integrated one, pointing out that at the time of writing there was no one idea. It therefore call for wide reaching new policies and says that an integrated European awareness of security needs is required.

The National Strategy for Maritime Security, United States 2005

This article carries the authority of the United States Government. The writers believe that security in America depends upon security at sea — yet this was written post 2001, when the threat came through the air and from within. It states that private and public security activities need to be integrated. Despite calls for integration the final page lists 8 security different plans. It does however state that more co-operation and more trust is required between various agencies.

Zimmerman, R. and Horan,T., Digital Infrastructures, 2004, Routledge, New York 3

.The publisher of this book is a very well known and respected one in the non-fiction field.. Its subtitle states its purpose ‘Enabling Civil and Environmental Systems through Information Technology.’ It is therefore relevant to our topic. The main point put forward is that information technology is absolutely important and 4that ‘civil and environmental infrastructures will continue to be major targets for investment and development.’

References

American Society for Industrial Security, 14th November 2010, video, viewed 4th October 2011, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BUszNem9G5U

Brian, J., Integrated Policing in Action , Royal Canadian Mounted Police 2002, viewed 10th October 2011
http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/secur/fea-ved2-eng.htm

Carter,D. Law Enforcement Intelligence: A Guide for State, Local and Tribal Law, 2004, School of Criminal Justice, Michigan State University, viewed 6th October 2011 http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/pdf/e09042536.pdf

Chalk,P. and Rosenau,W., Confronting the ‘Enemy Within’: Security Intelligence, the Police, and Counterterrorism in Four Democracies, 2004, U.S.A., Rand Corporation, viewed 5th October 2011 http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=zS9hICaS-PYC&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Intelligence++Integration,+security&ots=HT_7Urm8ud&sig=JwbKEieyv1FNz3zNscAAPLc7b5I#v=onepage&q&f=false

National Security for Aviation Security, Air Domain Surveillance and Intelligence Integration Plan, 26th March 2007, U.S.A. Government, viewed 5th October 2011, http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nspd/adsii.pdf

Peter Chalk, Rand Objective Analysis . Effective Solutions, August 2011, viewed 5th October 2011 http://www.rand.org/about/people/c/chalk_peter.html

Ratcliffe, J., Intelligence-led policing, Australian Institute of Criminology, number 248, undated, viewed 10th October 2011

Rosenau, Rand Objective Analysis. Effective Solutions, 2011, viewed 6th October 2011
http://www.rand.org/search.html#eyJxdWVyeSI6IlJvc2VuYXUifQ==

Security and Surveillance, Athena Global, 2004, view2ed 10th October 2011 http://www.athenaglobal.com/pdf/11_security_and_surveillance.pdf

Space and Security Policy in Europe, Executive Summary, Instituto Affairi Internazionali, 2003, viewed 10th October 2011

The National Strategy for Maritime Security, United States 2005, viewed 10th October 2011, http://merln.ndu.edu/archivepdf/nss/strategies/4844-nsms.pdf

University of Arizona, IEEE International Conferences on Intelligence and Security Informatics, 2006, viewed 4th October 2011
http://www.isiconference.org/

Zimmerman, R. and Horan,T., Digital Infrastructures, 2004, Routledge, New York, viewed 4th October 2011
http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107998839

1 Preface iii

3 Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107998839

4 Zimmerman and Horan, 2004, Page 238