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Annotated Bibliography( Risk Crisis & Communication) Essay Example

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Risk and Crisis Communication

Feng, M., Brewer, P., & Ley, B. (2012). Framing the Chinese baby formula scandal: A comparative analysis of US and Chinese news coverage. Asian Journal of Communication, 22 (3), 253-269.

Feng, Brewer & Ley (2012) assess how the United States and Chinese news media covered the scandal of baby formula. Through content analysis, the authors draw on framing theory to present a hypothetical basis for comparing the U.S. and Chinese news coverage of product safety issues. The content analysis involved two leads news agencies which include AP (Associated Press) of the United States and the Xinhua News Agency of China. The authors evaluate whether the news media in China and the U.S. covered the government source in a way that mirrored wider disparities amid economic and political context of both China and the U.S.

Feng, Brewer & Ley (2012) explores how different news media firms that functions in different economic and political contexts can create meaning of similar products safety issues in different ways. The authors consult past studies which compares the U.S and Chinese news coverage with respect to global economy and product safety issues. In this regard, the authors employ a comparative blueprint to the assessment of Chinese product safety in the baby formula scandal. The authors employed a quantitative content analysis of the baby formula case. Feng, Brewer & Ley (2012) coded the data based on four topics that included the relationship between the baby formula contamination and safety issues, causes of contamination, impacts of contamination and reactions to contamination. The authors identified these topics via a pilot study that included thirty seven news stories. The authors also included qualitative framing analysis of the stories involved in the content analysis through application of constructionist perspective. The quantitative analysis exposed disparities amid how AP and Xinhua covered the baby formula scandal while the qualitative analysis exposed disparities in how the news agencies frame the Chinese government role in the baby formula scandal.

According to Feng, Brewer & Ley (2012), political aspects can contribute disparities amid the U.S. and Chinese news media depiction of controversial issues. This occurs because of the temperament of the link amid a nation’s news media and the government. In the United States, the news media values a role of being the independent government watchdogs while in China, the news media operate as the mouthpiece of the Chinese government to develop a harmonious society besides upholding political stability.

The search terms used to search for news paper articled included news media, baby formula, framing, China and United States. The article is accessible from Taylor and Francis database through baby formula scandal and crisis communication strategies as search terms.

Lyu, J. (2012). A comparative study of crisis communication between mainland China and Taiwan: The melamine-tainted milk power crisis in the Chinese context. Public Relations Review, 38 (2012), 779-791.

Lyu (2012) explores the fundamental media and political system reasons that instigated the differences in the baby formula scandal news coverage. The author compares and identifies the crisis communication strategies employed by organisations in responding to the melamine-tainted milk scandal in Taiwan and Mainland China. The author uses discourse analysis and content analysis of media coverage used in covering the milk scandal to meet the objective of his paper.

Lyu (2012) employed a comprehensive literature review on crisis communication to ascertain different crisis communication strategies employed by different organisations in responding to crisis. To fill the gap in literature, the author examines the melamine-tainted milk scandal to determine and compare crisis communication strategies employed by the two dairy companies in China. The author confirms that effectiveness and selection of crisis communication strategies differ considerably with respect to media, cultural and political variables of a given nation. Through a comparative double case study perspective, the author confirms that the link between the organisation and the government, and the link between the media and the government impacts selection of crisis communication strategies in firms. The paper ascertains that the media and government of a given nation generate divergent post-crisis contexts for firms that experiences crisis. The author bases his research on two research questions that seeks to identify the differences and similarities amid the crisis communication strategies employed by the two firms and how the media and government influenced the selection of CCSs.

According to Lyu (2012), the Mainland China-based organisation and the Taiwan based firm showed contrary blueprint of crisis communication strategies where the mainland-china firm employed a defensive approach and the Taiwan-based firm assumed an accommodative crisis communication strategies before gradually moving to defensive pole. The findings from the research indicate that the two firms involved in the melamine-tainted milk scandal adopted apology, corrective action and denial strategies. Lyu (2012) asserts that media systems, cultural dynamics and political systems play a crucial role in selection of crisis communication strategies in an organisation. These factors are among the most vital aspects that facilitate explanation of the disparities in societies, even in societies with similar traditional culture. According to Lyu (2012), different systems of media instigate diverse media performances while media coverage establish opinion environment through which firms require to control crisis. Media coverage also influences the perception of the public about crisis because media is an information source for the public. Culture also holds enormous effect during crisis.

The Key words used to search for the coverage from United Daily news, Apple Daily, Liberty Times and China Times was Kingcar, and with respect to the Mainland China Company, Sanlu was used. To access this article from Science-Direct database, I used crisis communication strategies in the Chinese milk scandal as my search terms.

Qi, B., Yang, R., & Tian, G. (2013). Can media deter management from manipulating earnings: Evidence from China? Rev Quant Finan Acc, 42 (2014), 571-597.

Qi, Yang & Tian (2013) explore the impact of media exposure in the earnings of managers control behaviour. The paper investigates the role of media exposure in managerial decisions relating to earnings management. The authors employ a case study perspective with quantitative analysis where they involved publicly traded organisations in China. The authors ascertain that organisations with increased media exposure both positive and negative control their earnings less compared to firms with less media exposure.

Through comprehensive literature review, the authors confirm the conflicting role of media in emerging market. The authors conducted an empirical study where several firms listed in the Shenzhen and Shanghai Stock Exchange between 2001 and 2009 were involved. The firms included were nonfinancial firms with positive book value. The authors used robust test to explore the effect of media exposure on accrued-based earnings while descriptive statistics was used in analysis of the collected data.

The findings from the study indicate that the media serve as an efficient external monitor in lowering accruals for most publicly traded organisations. The media exerts increased pressure on managers for suspect organisations to control their earning via accruals. According to the authors, media coverage can restrain management of earnings in suspect firms. Qi, Yang & Tian (2013) ascertains that the media in China serves as an external monitor to most firms. In addition, the authors confirm that the media places increased pressure on suspect organisations. According to Qi, Yang & Tian (2013), media serves as an external monitor of managers. With respect to China, the Chinese media report good news than bad news because the government keeps a tight restriction on the new and conventional media to prevent challenges to the country’s political power. The media in China hold less freedom to identify the content of media coverage. In addition, the media is less protected by the country’s laws when sued by companies or individuals and most of the Chinese media is government-owned. Notwithstanding that Chinese media is controlled by the government, media still hold increased power in management of accrued-based earnings.

. To access this article from Springer Science Business Media database, I used risk and crisis communication and media exposure as my search terms.

Siu, W. (2010). Source agenda setting: Inter media influence in the food safety scandal. Journal of Communications Research, 1 (4), 355-381.

Siu (2010) explores the mutual effect of internet bulletin board, newspapers, government press releases, and internet portal on first and second level agenda setting. The author achieves his research objective through evaluating the government press releases of the People’s Daily, Xici Hutong, NetEase and the Xinhua news agency. Drawing on the findings from past studies on inter-media and source agenda setting, the author determines whether official newspapers, internet bulleting board and press releases hold a reciprocal inter-media agenda-setting effect over each other’s news agenda.

Siu (2010) employs a case study analysis perspective where the poison milk scandal is used as a case. To ascertain and explore the mutual effect of media coverage on first and second level agenda setting, Siu (2010) employs a content analysis perspective to assess media source links in the China’s poison milk scandal. The author employs a quantitative research perspective to test the relationship between the mutual influence among the source agenda of news media, and among the affective government tone press, internet bulletin boards and internet portals. In addition, Siu (2010) employs content analysis to evaluate the temperament of the milk poison scandal in news media. The author coded the stories relating to the poison milk scandal with respect to source reference and the affective coverage tone. SIU (2010) performed a cross-lagged correlation assessment to examine the causal inference of time series data.

The author asserts that the press hold great influence on people while politicians hold a natural benefit over sources of information in attaining media exposure given their prominence in the society. While media coverage impacts the apparent issues salience, the media coverage tone also affects evaluations of the public regarding certain issues. Siu (2010) reviews past studies in agenda-setting process to examine how the media coverage affects the public agenda. Through an extensive literature review, the author confirms that there is a close relationship amid the government officials and journalists. While media personalities offer the much required coverage to politicians and governments, these official sources shape the press agenda. The findings from the study indicate that the government news source receives extensive coverage in the newspaper and in government press releases. With respect to inter-media agenda setting, the content analysis demonstrated blueprints of affect. Through detailed literature review and content analysis of different media sources, Siu (2010) confirms the link between government press releases and the print newspaper.

To access this article from nova science publishers’ database, I used agenda setting and the role of media in crisis reporting as my search terms

Veil, S., & Yang, A. (2012), Media manipulation in the Sanlu milk contamination crisis. Public Relations Review, 38 (2012), 935-937.

Veil & Yang (2012) explore crisis communication strategies in a changing media environment with specific focus on the Sanlu Group’s crisis communication strategies during the quality control in China. The authors illustrate how firms can take advantage of a changing media system to lower the coverage of surfacing crisis. In 2008, Sanlu temporarily impended media coverage during its product quality crisis that left over 300, 000 infants sick, at least 6 killed, and the led to the closure of the Chinese dairy industry.

Veil and Yang (2012) employed a content analysis approach to meet their study objectives. The article assumes a qualitative research perspective with case study analysis. The article holds no research question to guide the research. However, the authors are keen in their data collection procedures where pertinent data was collected from several databases. To gain access of the news paper articles, the authors used Sanlu as their key word to identify all media articles highlighting the Sanlu incidence. The authors involved media coverage in Chinese and English from Mainland China. Veil and Yang (2012) involved the search function of Core Newspaper Full-text database to gain access of several relevant articles. News stories from the United States from Lexis-Nexis database were included in the study. The authors conducted the case study of Sanlu milk contamination incidence. They also assessed media coverage of the Sanlu crisis to ascertain how firms lower the coverage of media during crisis.

Veil and Yang (2012) ascertains that Sanlu influenced its links with the media and the local Chinese government to lower online searches and media coverage concerning the contamination of baby formula. The authors offer proof that the media through pressure from the Chinese government interfered with the flow of information concerning the incidence via online and conventional media. According to Veil and Yang (2012), in some nations, organisations can interfere with media relationships to prevent crisis from happening. Despite the attempts of Sanlu to block negative publicity through online news channels, the story was published. Veil and Yang (2012) assert that further study is needed on the role of the internet in exposing government and media non-transparency in nations where there is no independent media system.

To access this article from | ElsevierScience Direct database, I used crisis communication, media relations, Chinese media and media non-transparency as my search terms.

References

Feng, M., Brewer, P., & Ley, B.(2012). Framing the Chinese baby formula scandal: A comparative analysis of US and Chinese news coverage. Asian Journal of Communication, 22 (3), 253-269.

Lyu, J. (2012). A comparative study of crisis communication between mainland China and Taiwan: The melamine-tainted milk power crisis in the Chinese context. Public Relations Review, 38 (2012), 779-791.

Qi, B., Yang, R., & Tian, G. (2013). Can media deter management from manipulating earnings: Evidence from China. Rev Quant Finan Acc, 42 (2014), 571-597.

Siu, W. (2010). Source agenda setting: Inter media influence in the food safety scandal. Journal of Communications Research, 1 (4), 355-381.

Veil, S., & Yang, A. (2012), Media manipulation in the Sanlu milk contamination crisis. Public Relations Review, 38 (2012), 935-937.