Analysis of fat and protein in a sausage roll

Food Analysis

The Name of the School

Introduction

Testing the amount of nutrients in food is very important as it gives the quantity of calories and other ingredients it contain. It goes without doubt that sports men and women are required to take specific amount of a given nutrients in their body. With changes in human living and health consciousness, the amount of each and every food individual takes counts a lot. There are several methods used to test different components of any given food and in this paper, we would like to test the fat and protein component of sausage. The test will be carried out and various results will be described.

Objective of this study

The main objective of this project is to visually communicate a contentious issue in food safety and security

Fat content testing

For fat testing, there are three major ways through which this can be done. First, it involves the grinding up of food that is the sausage content and mixing the grinded sausage with water. The liquid mixture e is then passed through filter paper, squeezing out any gunge. This is a simple but direct method (James, 2013). Secondly, the test is easier and it involve taking sample of sausage rubbing it in a filter paper and then hold the filter paper up in the light and if the paper becomes translucent slightly and if you can see through then it shows the presence of fat. The third involve adding ethanol to a very small amount of the test substance shake or crush the food to make it dissolve filter or dilute the food and ethanol mix so that you get clear liquid (James, 2013). This is another simple way do carry out fat presence in sausage and most complicated that will be described here is the quantity of fat which must be calculated.

Protein amount in sausage

For protein content determination, total nitrogen content in the food has been applied for many years. The nitrogen content is multiplied by the factor which is arrived at from the protein content. In the calculation using this approach, there are two main assumptions which are being made. First, the dietary carbohydrates and fats do not contain nitrogen and secondly, that nearly all of the nitrogen in the diet is actually present as amino acids in protein. In the previous studies, the calculation of the average nitrogen content of the proteins was established to be around 16% which resulted into the calculation as Nitrogen (N) *6.25, which assistant in converting nitrogen content into protein content (Ball, Bindler & Cowen, 2013).

From the previous discussion it was found that the single factor 6.25 is based on two major consideration. First it is based on the fact that not all nitrogen in the nourishments is found in the protein. That is to say it is contained in the variable amounts of other compound like free amino acids, creatine, nucleotide and choline where it is alluded to as non-protein nitrogen (NPN) (Khoury et al., 2014). It is contended that exclusive a little partition of NPN is accessible for the union of the supposed the trivial amino acids (Wildman et al., 2016). The second important factor is the nitrogen content of specific amino acid as which is given as percentage of the weight which is varies according to the molecular weight of the amino acid and the number of nitrogen atoms which it contain (Khoury et al., 2014). Based on the important facts, and the different amino acid compositions of the various protein the nitrogen content of the protein normally varies from different percentage.

Methodology and calculation

Practical 2: Fat Calculations

NIP Calculation (as shown on packaging)

Weight of fat in one serving size

Serving size

Percentage Fat as according to NIP serving

analysis of fat and protein in a sausage roll

Soxhlet Calculations – Extracted Fat

Weight of flask + boiling chips (g)

158.997g

Weight of flask + bc + fat (g)

159.348g

Weight of extracted fat (g)

analysis of fat and protein in a sausage roll 1

Soxhlet Calculations – Dry Basis

Weight of dried food sample (g)

Final volume on burette

analysis of fat and protein in a sausage roll 2

Soxhlet Calculations – Final Percentage Fat

Dry Matter Coefficient (DMC)
analysis of fat and protein in a sausage roll 3

Soxhlet Percentage Fat

analysis of fat and protein in a sausage roll 4

Bligh & Dyer – Extracted Fat

Weight of flask (g)

100.003g

Weight of flask + fat (g)

100.686g

Weight of extracted fat (g)

analysis of fat and protein in a sausage roll 5

Bligh & Dyer – Final Percentage Fat

Weight of food sample (g)

Bligh & Dyer Percentage Fat

analysis of fat and protein in a sausage roll 6

Practical 1: Protein Calculations

NIP Calculation (as shown on packaging)

Weight of protein in one serving size

Serving size

Percentage Protein as according to NIP

analysis of fat and protein in a sausage roll 7

Blank Titration

Initial reading on burette

Final volume on burette

Volume of HCl added for sample

analysis of fat and protein in a sausage roll 8

converted to Litresanalysis of fat and protein in a sausage roll 9

analysis of fat and protein in a sausage roll 10

Sample Titration

Initial reading on burette

Final volume on burette

Volume of HCl added for sample

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converted to Litresanalysis of fat and protein in a sausage roll 12

analysis of fat and protein in a sausage roll 13

Equation 1

Concentration of HCl (C)

Volume of HCl added (in LITRES)

analysis of fat and protein in a sausage roll 14

Number of moles of HCl added

analysis of fat and protein in a sausage roll 15

0.00107mol

Equation 2

Number of moles of nitrogen

0.00107mol

MR (Molar mass) of nitrogen

Mass of Nitrogen

analysis of fat and protein in a sausage roll 16

Equation 3

Mass of sample (g) (on screens)

Nitrogen percentage

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Equation 4

Conversion factor

Protein percentage

analysis of fat and protein in a sausage roll 18

Results and discussion

From the results, the amount of AA-MT ranges at 55% to 100% in the roll of the sausage. The correlation is linear in nature with concentration of fats in the product very high at around 75% in the sausage. From the results, the protein content in the results shows that sausage have 4 of AA-AZ of sausage with 8% and the content 1.47%. The results shows that the molarity of 0.00107 and grams to be 0.0149 grams (Khoury et al., 2014). The results shows that proteins are comprised of chains of amino acids joined by peptide bonds, they are fit to be hydrolyzed to their part amino acids, which can then be measured by particle trade, gas-fluid or superior fluid chromatography. AZ+AA wiener gives substance of protein of 9.53% and 1.59 separately (Ball, Bindler & Cowen, 2013).

With respect to the stoichiometry, and taking into consideration the concentration titrant in the solution (NaOH, where C = 0.1 mol/L and the trapping in this case is given as (H2SO4, C = 0.05 mol/L which is the solution of the volume of the sodium hydroxide which is required to help in the titration of the protein content and it corresponds to the excess of the sulphuric acid in the trapping solution (Khoury et al., 2014). The quantity of the solution from this content is given in the excel file and calculation in the formula given below:-

Concentration of HCl (C)

Volume of HCl added (in LITRES)

analysis of fat and protein in a sausage roll 19

Number of moles of HCl added

analysis of fat and protein in a sausage roll 20

The conversion factor in this instance is 6.25 with the Protein percentage

analysis of fat and protein in a sausage roll 21

The protein percentage in the pork is 9.16

Therefore the total protein component is = 9.16* 6.25 = 57.25

This shows the percentage of the protein in the sausage

Reference

James, C. S. (2013). Analytical chemistry of foods. Springer Science & Business Media.

Khoury, C. K., Bjorkman, A. D., Dempewolf, H., Ramirez-Villegas, J., Guarino, L., Jarvis, A. … & Struik, P. C. (2014). Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(11), 4001-4006.

Ball, J. W., Bindler, R. C., & Cowen, K. J. (2013). Child health nursing. Prentice Hall.

Wildman, R. E., Wildman, R., & Wallace, T. C. (2016). Handbook of nutraceuticals and functional foods. CRC press.