Alternative submission method Essay Example

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In paraphrasing the statement, ‘the simple addition of a reference at the end of an essay or report for academic assessment is not enough’.’ This is common information always passed by not only academicians, lecturers, students and professors but is a global concern in maintaining both academic and educational integrity (Duggan, 2006). It is important to always represent your own views about situations, and it is not only a problem that faces students or scholars but the society. It is notable for instance Joe Biden quit from the 1988 presidential elections after he notably plagiarized a speech from Neil Kinnock of the British Labour party speech (Snider, 2013).

The consequences of acts of copying another person work are dire, it includes; loss of career, expelled, suspended or article denied publication. This paper will highlight the various ways plagiarism is avoidable as well as the maintenance of academic integrity in publishing academic information.

Plagiarism simply referred to as ‘literary theft’ is defined as an act of ‘stealing and passing off the ideas or words of another as their own using or using another’s created production without crediting the source or presenting as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source.’ (Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 1998). In writing college materials, a student needs to integrate material from published sources. It is wrong to assume authorship including words, ideas, or other creations in a way that is socially harmful and false (Lindey, 1952).

According to Griffiths (1998), he asserts that ‘there is no hope of doing perfect research’, and there needs to be a diligent inquiry in the examination and revision of already accepted theories. It is beyond doubt that more efforts are required to create and produce academic materials that are not only original but also premised on already known information and knowledge. Plagiarism has been elevated to a crime with the act being intentionally copying a work or failing to attribute such work to its author (an omission) where there was a duty to do so (McGowan, 2010). The necessary intent is using ‘intentionally or knowingly’ the authors work without attributing the source. Most universities met out severe penalties for any student who has plagiarized another person’s work.

Modern day plagiarism, identified when one downloads information from the internet and pastes them onto their assignments is increasingly growing in institutions of learning. There is also extensive copying of information from already published books, paper and automatically assuming ownership of the materials. A student handing in assignments that is not their own and colluding with other students to publish their works is a form of plagiarism. These acts; done by student’s amounts to the erosion of educational integrity and value placed on students who will have an impact in the society (Crisp, 2005). There is a presumption that students and teachers ought to adhere to honest methods in learning and assessment even when in compromising situations.

Academic integrity refers simply to the personal choice of a person to act responsibly and to take responsibility for one’s actions. It encompasses mastering the art of scholarship that understands and building upon work of others and gives credit where it is due, acknowledge the contributions and efforts of others in the work (Bretag et al 2011). This is to say that academic integrity is not achievable by adding the name and title of a book at the end of an essay, but it goes beyond that. The written material and information must demonstrate the authors own view of the problem presented, give their own perspective and build on information already presented to the public (common knowledge).

It is important to note that when a person take an author’s work ; article, song, television show, or ant medium, paraphrase, summarize or take words, phrases, or sentences from a source within the assignment then it is advisable using internal citation. Bernard Lane (2013) reported on the Australian of an article pulled down from an international journal after a finding of plagiarism. The article written by Kristine Deray had substantive plagiarises of a work done by a US academician. Deray the lead author failed to attribute some words and phrases it was not intentional and an apology was accepted. The article had improper paraphrasing, few phrases and words were changed or the sentence order of the original text rearranged with no credit notice or reference appearing within the text.

It is reasonable to assert that mentioning the name or author of the article is not sufficient. There is a threshold set limiting the amount of information plagiarized, and even when this occurs, there needs to be internal citation. Most if not all institutions of higher education adopt different referencing styles such as; Australia Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC), Chicago, Havard, Vancouver, Oxford among others in order to ensure that a student effectively cites articles correctly (McGowan, 2010). The styles used both in the bibliography and within the body of information through in text citation.

Footnotes are automatically applied in word processing documents allows insertion of references. Footnotes are an alternative to in text citation and one can automatically add reference on the source of information. It is important to ensure that every text reference appears in the reference list and that every item in the reference list mentioned at least once in the assignment. Consistency is also necessary in referencing is important when using a particular referencing style.

The other components that are important in ensuring that academic integrity is upheld is adding quotation marks at the end of text that has been copied. At the end of the quotation marks the authors name listed plus the page number depending on the reference style used. Attributions are important in academic writing since it gives the author an opportunity to thank all persons who aided and contributed in publishing the work. Paraphrasing and summarizing are also important tools in ensuring that the work published is credible and reliable.

The importance of citing and referencing the academic work is to demonstrate extensive reading, research, evaluation of literature. Referencing is a way to relate with the people reading the academic writer and that people can rely on the information and agree with interpretation. In most of the written assignments, thesis or dissertations students are required to present their work in written form. To cite academic sources gives research authority, strengthens the argument, support ideas, giving detailed background to what one is writing, to elicit interest and avoid plagiarism (Bretag et al, 2011). Common knowledge needs no internal citation within an academic paper. Common knowledge includes information that is well-published well verifiable facts published in five or more sources. The common knowledge information such as sayings, proverbs, historical dates, places and events for instance Jane Austen was born in 1775. A unique phrase does not require an internal citation. In quoting, it involves exact words, phrases and sentences from a source through setting them off with quotation marks, and citing where the information source.

In conclusion, academic integrity is a major concern for academicians, scholar and students who participate in the presentation of papers, essays, articles and books for publication or assessment. The consequences of plagiarism are dire and it takes more than listing reference materials. Avoiding plagiarism encompass; quoting information taken from another author, paraphrasing of paragraphs and quotes, including in-text citations, footnoting, attribution, summarizing, and adding your own ‘voice’ to the materials. It is however, important to not only focus on avoiding plagiarism but also take measures to ensure the maintenance of academic integrity and scholastic honesty in academic materials.


Bernard Lane (6 March 2013) Article Pulled for plagiarism. The Australian

Bretag, T; Mahmud, S; Wallace, M; Walker, R; James, C; Green, M; East, J; McGowan, U; Partridge, L. (2011) Core elements of exemplary academic integrity policy in Australian higher education. International Journal for Educational Integrity. Retrieved from (accessed 15/12/2011)

. Adelaide. July 24-30 Independent WeeklyCrisp, G. (2005) Isn’t plagiarism just cheating

(2): 151-156. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 31Duggan, F. (2006). Plagiarism: prevention, practice and policy.

Griffiths, P.E (1998). Emotion. In A Companion to Cognitive Science. W. Bechtel and G. Graham (Eds). Oxford, Blackwells: 197-203.

Lindey, A. (1952). Plagiarism and Originality. New York: Harper.

Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. (1998).10th ed. New York

McGowan, U. (2010) Re-defining academic teaching in terms of research apprenticeship. In M. Devlin, J. Nagy and A. Lichtenberg (Eds.) Research and Development in Higher Education: Reshaping Education, 33 (pp. 481-489). Retrieved from

Snider, J.H. (8 August 2013). Think Tanks’ Dirty Little Secret: Power, Public Policy, and Plagiarism. Edmond Journal Safre Center for Ethics. Harvard University. Retrieved from