ADRENALINE 1 Essay Example

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  1. Identify the primary receptors adrenaline binds to and describe for each the pathway by which it causes an effect on the body.

The Alpha Receptors

The alpha receptors enable vasoconstriction and have been subdivided into alpha1 and alpha2 receptors. Notably, these receptors have been sub-classified to alpha1A, alpha1B, alpha1D, alpha2A, alpha2B, and alpa2C and each serves a distinct physiologic function. Also, the alpha1 and alpha2 postsynaptically exist and have the G-protein which enables rampant cellular signaling in the body. Therefore, activation of these receptors allows vasoconstriction of the vascular smooth muscle. Alternatively, the alpha2 receptors are presynaptic and thus inhibit the release of norepinephrine. Consequently, there is stimulation of the G-protein which has the K+ channels which lead to membrane hyperpolarization. When it comes to the influence of epinephrine to vascular smooth muscles, then the alpha receptors are similar to the beta receptors. Interestingly, when the two receptors are expected to bring out the vasodilation, the alpha1 causes vasoconstriction (Lefkowitz & Caron, 2013). As a result, in small doses, his epinephrine stimulates the b2 receptors so as to enable muscle relation and peripheral resistance decrease. The vasoconstriction only occurs when the body has enough levels of the alpa1 receptor.

Beta Receptors

Beta receptors are divided further into the beta1 and beta2 though there are also the bveta3 and beta4 receptors. The classification is based on how this receptor interacts with the drugs. These receptors give the same compounds the ability to enable bronchodilation through a different set of dose-response to the curves and association equilibrium of constants. Notably, the structure of the drug is what activates the beta receptors. The majority of the body tissues have multiple receptors; nevertheless, beta receptors are mostly utilized in the sympathetic nervous system. Specifically, the beta1 receptors which affect the myocardial function of the normal heart, while the beta2 influence the nonvascular and vascular muscles. For instance, the heart has the beta1 receptor while the vascular smooth muscle has the beta2. When activated beta1 receptors lead to increased heart rate and contractile force (Lefkowitz & Caron, 2013).

  1. Create a table of receptor subtypes that includes their location(s) within the body

Type of receptor

Receptor Subtype

Beta receptors


Adipose tissue

Vascular smooth muscle

Airway smooth muscle

Kidney-renin release from JG cells

Alpha receptors

Vascular sooth muscles

Airway smooth muscle

  1. Describe the manifestations of an allergic reaction with particular attention to the vascular and respiratory effects

Allergic reactions are sensitivities that are caused by allergens when they come into contact with the nose, eyes, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. According to Jeurink et al. (2016), allergies are common and range from mild to life-threatening cases such as the anaphylaxis. In the respiratory systems, the allergic conditions can cause severe angioedema of the lips, tongue, and tachypnea, loss of voice, dysphonia, wheezing, and stridor. Alternatively, the disease can attack the cardiovascular system and cause hypertension, cardiovascular collapse, tachycardia, and shock. People who experience cardiovascular allergic issues are unable to have tissue perfusion that meets the metabolic demands for oxygen and the body nutrients. Mostly inadequate oxygen delivery is caused by lack of both artery oxygen content and cardiac output. Surprisingly, the reactions can be triggered by very simple issues such as food but can be threatening at the end of it.

  1. Explain how adrenaline causes a therapeutic response in anaphylaxis

Adrenaline is a direct-acting sympathomimetic agent who immediately gives relief to anaphylaxis caused by drugs, anaphylactic shock, or allergens. According to Moore, Kemp, & Kemp, (2015), the most used treatment method of anaphylaxis is the injection of the epinephrine (epinephrine auto-injector) as a first aid since it prevents further life-threatening symptoms. The a1-adrenegic vasoconstrictor regulates the activities of the precapillary sphincters and small arterioles which, in turn, cause vascular resistance and a higher blood pressure that prohibits hypertension and shock. Additionally, the drugs lead to less mucosal edema and prevent the upper airway obstruction. On the other hand, the beta-adrenergic increases the force and the rate of cardiac contractions. Additionally, there is increased bronchodilation that leads to the reduction of the wheezing, histamine, urticaria, and other mast cells.

  1. Explain how adrenaline improves cardiac output.

Adrenaline is administered in a person when they experience difficulty in breathing to improve the cardiac output. Cardiac output is the amount of blood that the heart pumps per minute. Usually, adrenaline is produced by the body to cause many effects among them increase the heart rate. Injected adrenaline in the bloodstream increases the heart rate through stimulation of the adrenergic receptor cells in the heart tissues. Once stimulated, the receptors cause the flight-fight mode to a G-protein that, in turn, causes the substances inside the cells to produce a cascading alert effect (Nickerson & Hollenberg, 2016). Consequently, the process increases the heart rate and the contractions of the individual heart.

  1. Explain why you think adrenaline can result in adverse events

First of all, people are expected to keep their adrenal system in check since this influences the energy levels, alertness, mental health, excellent performance among other activities. Apparently, adrenaline is a hormone and at the same times a neurotransmitter which antagonizes the alpha1, alpha2, beta2, and beta1 receptors in the body. When a person is under any stress, the hormone enables one to handle the situation by increasing the heart rate, blood pressure, and heart’s ability to pump the blood. As a result, if the epinephrine levels are much in the blood, they are also likely to cause blood sugar problems because that means that the functions are overdone. Alternatively, the vasoconstriction can make some other parts of the body lack of oxygen when the levels of epinephrine are raised in some regions. Other adverse issues that the person can get are arrhythmias, pulse acceleration, heart slowing down, extreme coldness, muscle weakness, numbness, paleness, sweating, respiratory arrest, nausea, anxiety, among others depending on the patient (Nickerson, & Hollenberg, 2016).

  1. Adrenaline should not be injected into hands, feet, nose, ears, genitalia or buttocks. Explain why this warning is given

Notably, adrenaline is absorbed in the body quickly, and that is why it is injected to these places. Olsen & Weinberg (2017) emphasized that in the mid-thigh muscles, it is impossible for the medicine to destroy the tendons or the nerves. Additionally, these are the least painful body parts that any drug can be injected. A person is laid flat while pumping adrenaline and if there is difficulty in breathing that is only when the patient sits. If a person is unconscious, the nurses ensure that they place them in a recovery position which will not allow them to move even when they wake from the injection. The care is taken because adrenaline is a neurotransmitter which can cause adverse effects to one’s health when allowed to get into the wrong points in life. Additionally, the precautions are offered so as to remind the doctors to be careful with lives of their patients. Olsen & Weinberg (2017) noted that if adrenaline is administered in the wrong areas, the adrenaline is likely to cause a low blood pressure that can cause falls and faints. Such falls can cause adverse effects when the person meets with the hard floor.

  1. Anxiety, fear, tenseness, restlessness, irritability are potential adverse responses to adrenaline. Explain why these responses may occur

The responses occur when the brain stem produces adrenaline that contains the enzyme which can convert the noradrenaline into adrenaline. Interestingly, when a person is in stressful situations, the body increases the activities of the noradrenergic and adrenergic neurons. As a result, the person ends up developing an adverse effect on the brain memory. The responses such as anxiety occur when the body uses the stress chemicals as the neurotransmitters that regulate the memories in the amygdala, the center for the production of negative emotions within the body. Usually, a human mind remembers the things that are mostly replayed in the spirit for an extended period. However, a negative emotional significant event causes the brain to develop the long-lasting networks of feeling such as irritability among others (Turner et al., 2016). So, in short, it is the adrenaline that is produced in the brain that triggers the wrong neurons that contribute to the negative feelings.

  1. Repeated dosing can lead to metabolic acidosis. Explain how metabolic acidosis can eventuate

There are many causes of the metabolic acidosis and can be classified deepening on where it originates. One of the reasons is the lactic acidosis that is brought about by drugs such adrenaline. Surprisingly, there are no particular symptoms of metabolic acidosis and only occur when the body has a disarrangement in metabolism. Such patients experience dyspnea that is caused by respiratory center stimulation in the attempt to blow off CO2 and at the same time increase the blood pressure (Turner et al., 2016). Metabolic acidosis does not occur in children, and mostly, these people vomit, are nauseated and have anorexia.

  1. Explain why a caution is given on using adrenaline in those with Parkinsonism

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a movement disorder that is associated with shaking, bradykinesia, and rigidity. PD is the long-term disease of the brain that gradually worsens over time among mostly people over 50 years and above. The PD occurs when substantial nigra cells are damaged and die, and so they are not able to send messages from the brain to the spinal cord to control muscles of movements. The messages that the brain sends to the spinal cord are the neurotransmitter (Patient Info, 2017). According to Turner et al. (2016), adrenaline is a neurotransmitter, and that means that it is likely to tamper with the production of the dopamine and therefore make the PD worse than it already. Also, adrenaline is known for causing issues such as depression and anxiety when overdosed and this would affect the patient’s worse that PD does. Therefore, it is necessary to check out with the doctor before a person administers adrenaline into their body.


Jeurink, P. V., Damialis, A., Wichers, H., & Savelkoul, H. F. (2016). The Mutual influences of man-made pollutants and allergic manifestations. APSTRACT: Applied Studies in Agribusiness and Commerce, 10(2-3), 97-106.

Lefkowitz, R. J., & Caron, M. G. (2013, October). Molecular and regulatory properties of adrenergic receptors. In Recent Progress in Hormone Research: Proceedings of the 1986 Laurentian Hormone Conference (Vol. 43). Academic Press.

Moore, L. E., Kemp, A. M., & Kemp, S. F. (2015). Recognition, Treatment, and Prevention of Anaphylaxis. Immunology and allergy clinics of North America, 35(2), 363-374.

Nickerson, M., & Hollenberg, N. K. (2016). Blockade of a-adrenergic receptors. Physiological pharmacology, 4, 243-305.

Olsen, K., & Weinberg, E. (2017). Pain-Less Practice: Techniques to Reduce Procedural Pain and Anxiety in Pediatric Acute Care. Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine.

Parkinson’s Disease symptoms and management — Patient. (2017). Retrieved 18 April 2017, from

Turner, P. J., Baumert, J. L., Beyer, K., Boyle, R. J., Chan, C. H., Clark, A. T., … & Grabenhenrich, L. (2016). Can we identify patients at risk of life‐threatening allergic reactions to food?. Allergy, 71(9), 1241-1255.