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11EDU20001 Developing Literacy

Title: Developing Literacy: Portfolio B

Admission number:

Name and description of each portfolio resource

Evidence of the resource e.g. screenshot or URL

Description of how the resource would be deployed in primary or early childhood setting.

Emergent writing

-writing areas, use of invented spelling.

-Use of utterances that contain information about sounds, alphabet letter names or print concepts

-A reading area provides the stimulus to the children to create marks. The educator acts as a facilitator and provides an opportunity for children to decide the reason for writing. The writing area gives the children a low risk environment for them to practice writing and try new ideas (Rijlaarsdam, Bergh, & Couzijn, 2005).

— By setting up a writing area in a classroom, space and time is created for the children to experiment with a various writing materials.

-Invented spelling helps learners to communicate in writing before they are able to spell words correctly.

-utterances help students to choose a letter, sound or print that they are able to pronounce or write.;

-The teacher creates a writing area that is spacious. The teacher sets a graphics area in a classroom where learners choose a variety of writing materials. The students choose what they like to write about and how they would like it to be arranged (KÜMMERLING-MEIBAUER, 2011). 

-The writing area comprises of a table against a wall with a graphical notice board for learners to display their markings.

-The writing area is equipped with various writing implements such as old envelopes, sizes and colours of various drawing papers, a pad of forms and different sizes of shapes and colours which help students to practice their handwriting (Teale & Sulzby, 1986).

-The teacher also reflects on the utterances on on-going topics in the class. For example, a topic on giants could involve large giant shapes and envelopes; graphics that represent gigantic items.This helps students to try and make sounds and letter names that represent the giants (Pugliano, 1988).

Writing in Primary

-use of collaborative writing

-Making of books

-Collaborative writing helps students to discuss possible options, build each other’s ideas and make adjustments together (Harris, 2004).

-making of books enables children in primary to have a good reason for writing. Writing books which actually get published will improve students’ image and self-esteem as writers.;

— Richards and Lassonde (2011) note that in collaborative writing, the teacher uses peer tutoring to provide backing for younger students. This helps to help students who lack confidence in writing. For example, a class 2 student can be paired with a class 6 student in a writing assessment. The illustration of such a pair can work like this: the older child acts as the secretary for the younger one, the older one encourages the younger to improve on their initial writing skills and ideas.

-The two parties later work jointly in making decisions for the content writing. They both share the task for writing where the younger student develops ideas for the content writing (Corgill, 2008). Therefore, the younger learner does the most of the asking questions and writing than the younger child. This helps to improve the writing skills of the younger child.

The teachers create set ups such that the children working together are able to provide a partnership that creates a relationship of a questioner and an encourager (Fleming, 1998).

-The teacher or educator encourages students to write content that they find informative. The educator encourages students to do their own compositions that will get published. The educator later holds shared writing sessions with the students to discuss the best composition for publishing. The shared writing sessions check on the spelling mistakes, punctuations and grammar of all the compositions. The educator calls for rereading of the compositions and encourages more students to give in their qualified works for publishing.

Books published are often distributed to the students themselves and their peers. The children are encouraged to improve their writing skills as they want their work published (Bright, 2002). 

Emergent reading

-Use of describer style of reading

-use of comprehended style of reading.

— Describer style of reading helps the educator to describe pictures during the reading session. This style helps the educator to use language that is interactive and encourage children to say what they think about the pictures on a book (Desai, Qorro, & Brock-Utne, 2010).

-Descriptive reading helps students to make up stories of the pictures they see in the books.

Descriptive reading helps the children to discover the difference between toys and books. Children will enjoy reading books as they are able to pinpoint objects on the books and the actual objects on the ground.

-Comprehensive reading style involves interactive reading style. Interactive reading style tends to focus on the emotions depicted by the children when they are reading (Ottley, 2006).;;

-Descriptive reading and comprehensive reading can be used in early childhood where the educator reads loudly to the children. The advantage of this is to help the child to get engaged in the literacy activities. Children gain knowledge from narratives read to them. This encourages students to develop their own personal narratives from their day to day experiences. Tan and Subramaniam (2006) emphasizes that this helps to improve a child’s self-esteem

-Shared reading also allows for comprehensive reading that encourages joint attention. Shared reading has an advantage as it enhances receptive language by asking the children questions about the book or asking them to show or touch something that is represented in the book. The main disadvantage of shared reading is that children who tend to engage in shared reading at an early age do not show more interest in reading until they are older. Another disadvantage is that different styles of reading have different impacts on the development of the child’s literacy language related skills (Wu, 1999).

Reading in Primary.

-instructional process programs

-Computer assisted programs.

Instructional process program provides the students with assessment criteria that help to improve the performance of the students (Livholts, 2012).

-computer assisted programs provides a platform for the students to use computers to aid them in reading (Cochran, 1991). The computer provides multimedia that is embedded with the daily lessons and topics to be learnt in the classroom. The program consists of both technological and non-technological group activities such as game books and illustrated worksheets (Aguerre, 2006).;;

-Instructional process program begins with developing understandable and clear learning objectives. The educator must ensure that the objectives match with the proposed outcomes. For example, a program to examine the effectiveness of pedagogies can include a directive for cooperative learning to improve a pupils reading achievement (Plomp, 2009). The advantage of instructional process program is that it helps to cater for students personal needs. The program helps to examine areas that the student finds challenging while reading such as vowels and phonetics. However, the program is rigid that is, it is not flexible for different people with different needs. The program requires integration with technology in order to change their structure.

-According to Harris (2005) computer assisted program includes programs such as reading heels and websites such, which contain illustrative concepts such as attractive demonstration and sound. Reading programs enable children to see, take action and hear in order to learn phonics. Programs are installed in computers that remediate pupil’s errors and help pupils to learn phonic skills, develop comprehensive skills through word prediction and increased fluency. The main disadvantage of computer assisted program is that at times the websites used for CAI can become inactive or change over time. This can make students to become frustrated with reading. Further, some software may be inaccurate when it comes to assessment (Caffarella & Daffron, 2013). 

ICT and digital literacy

-use of social networks, video streaming, instant messaging, texting, mobile internet, electronic mail and photo sharing.

-The use of the digital age has been used to enhance media literacy (Lawrence, 2014). 

-enhance communication literacy.

-Enhances social literacy.,;

-The digital age has expanded the text notion that comprises of images and audio sounds. ICT has helped to improve media literacy by helping students to produce, access, analyse the media by appreciating and understanding how the media can effectively be used to communicate effectively (Mohd et al, 2003).

-Communication is enhanced by connecting each other through social networks and sharing of items such as books and music. The children are able to use the media to analyse how texts can be produced and constructed.

-Communication literacy is enhanced through the digital age by encouraging a foundation for organizing thinking and linking each other through a social media. Students discover various methods of information, how to share knowledge gained from such information and how to disseminate it to their fellow students. The digital age has created digital libraries that help students to conduct research. The use of internet to promote reading and writing has helped to enhance communication literacy.

-Social literacy develops through the use of internet and digital devices. Students are able to engage in group sharing through the social network where they can share experiences and status. Social networking enhances collaboration and cooperation from teenagers and the youth. It is also known as the participatory culture (Lawrence, 2014).

-Social literacy also helps to cultivate several skills which are helpful in children learning such as judgement skills, which help the student to analyse the credibility and reliability of information. Collective intelligence skills are also cultivated where; the student gets the ability to gain a pool of knowledge and uses this pool of knowledge to compare notes towards a common objective of learning (Plomp, 2009). 


AGUERRE, E. S. (2006). Classroom literature circles for primary grades: grades K-2.{F1F05E2D-89CD-4144-A3B0-437815D19EA4}&Format=50.

BRIGHT, R. (2002). Write from the start: writers workshop for the primary grades. Winnipeg, Portage & Main Press. CORGILL, A. M. (2008). Of primary importance: what’s essential in teaching young writers. Portland, Me, Stenhouse Publisher

CAFFARELLA, R. S., & DAFFRON, S. R. (2013). Planning programs for adult learners: a practical guide.

COCHRAN, J. (1991). Insights to literature: primary. Nashville, Tenn, Incentive Publications.

DESAI, Z., QORRO, M. A. S., & BROCK-UTNE, B. (2010). Educational challenges in multilingual societies: LOITASA phase two research. [South Africa], African Minds.

Emergent reading

FLEMING, M. (1998). 25 holiday & seasonal emergent reader mini-books. Jefferson City, MO, Scholastic Professional Books.

HARRIS, P. (2004). Writing in the primary school years. South Melbourne, Vic, Thomson.

HARRIS, P. (2005). Reading in the primary school years. Southbank, Vic, Thomson Learning.

KÜMMERLING-MEIBAUER, B. (2011). Emergent literacy: children’s books from 0 to 3. Amsterdam, John Benjamins Pub. Co.

LAWRENCE, S. A. (2014). Critical practice in P-12 education: transformative teaching and learning.

LIVHOLTS, M. (2012). Emergent writing methodologies in feminist studies. New York, Routledge.

MOHD. T. SEMBOK, T., BADIOZE ZAMAN, H., CHEN, H., URS, S., & HYON MYAENG, S. (2003). Digital Libraries: Technology and Management of Indigenous Knowledge for Global Access. Berlin, Springer.

OTTLEY, L. (2006). Emergent writer’s workshop: pre-K—K. Westminster, Calif, Teacher Created Resources.

PLOMP, T. (2009). Cross-national information and communication technology policies and practices in education. Charlotte, NC, IAP-Information Age Pub.

PUGLIANO, C. (1988). 25 just-right plays for emergent readers. New York, Scholastic Professional Books.

RICHARDS, J. C., & LASSONDE, C. A. (2011). Writing strategies for all primary students scaffolding independent writing with differentiated mini-lessons, Grades K-3. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass.

RIJLAARSDAM, G., BERGH, H. V. D., & COUZIJN, M. (2005). Effective learning and teaching of writing a handbook of writing in education. New York, N.Y, Kluwer Academic.

TAN, L. W. H., & SUBRAMANIAM, R. (2006). Handbook of research on literacy in technology at the K-12 level. Hershey, Penns, Idea Group Reference.

TEALE, W. H., & SULZBY, E. (1986). Emergent literacy: writing and reading. Norwood, N.J., Ablex Pub. Corp.

WU, C.-C. (1999). Maternal beliefs and practices and their preschoolers’ emergent writing. Thesis (M.S.)—Iowa State University, 1999.