Abstract references Essay Example

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Abstracts and Referencing

Preliminary tasks:

Working project title:

A Study on efficacy of gold nanoparticles in cancer treatment



Reference list:

Reference Summaries


(Mohammad-Beigi et al., 2013)

Comparison of different strategies for the assembly of gold colloids onto [email protected] particles

This publication is very pertinent in my project due to its wide coverage and because the experiment employed diverse strategies in the methodology. Additionally, the article is very recent (2013) and hence provides advanced and the latest information. The significance of this article in my project is that it focuses on structures of gold nanoparticles, which is very important aspect in diagnosis and therapeutic fields. The publication tackles various methods in assembling gold nanoparticles on the [email protected], effect of low PH and higher EDS on the coverage of gold nanoparticles on the surface of silica-coated magnetite particles (SCMPs) and hence gives the specific conditions that affect the assembly and morphology of gold nanoparticles on SCMPs.

Three strategies were used to test the coverage and intensity of absorptions bands in examining the assembly of gold nanoparticles on SCMPs included; the first strategy where gold nanoparticles covered with citrate were affixed on the surface of amine-SCMPs. The hydroxyl groups provided negative charges on the silica surface and thus the attachment of citrate-covered gold nanoparticles was inefficient. In the second approach, amine-SCMPs were covered with carboxylated gold nanoparticles while in the third approach gold nanoparticles covered the surface of the thiol-SCMPs.

Experimental results indicate that functionalization of silica surfaces with various functional groups and operational conditions greatly impact the assemblage as well as morphology of both gold nanoparticles and groups on the SCMPs. When amine-SCMPs were coated using gold nanoparticles through electrostatic contacts, there was more coverage and bands were absorbed at a higher rate. Additionally, results also indicated that reducing the PH has insignificant effect on the coverage of citrate-coated gold nanoparticles as compared to the amine-SCMPs although preparing amine-SCMPs with higher EDS results to more coverage of gold nanoparticles on the surface of SCMPs.

(Wang et al., 2010)

Multifunctional polyglycerol-grafted [email protected] for targeting

ovarian cancer cells

This publication is also very relevant in my project because it is a widely researched publication and contains the latest information regarding the project. In this experimental study, synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles together with SiO2shell was carried out and then they were grafted using hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG-grafted [email protected]). The diameter of these nanoparticles is approximately 47 and their stability is high within cell culture medium and in aqueous solution. Conjugation of several surfaces of hydroxyl groups of the nanoparticles was done using folic acid; through a thiol’click’ reaction. FTIR and XPS analyses were done to confirm the covalent attachment of folic acid on the nanoparticles.

Accordingly, a multifunctional nano-platform consisting of folic-conjugated fluorescent HPG-grafted [email protected] was developed to target ovarian cancer cells. The coating of HPG is what provides microphage-eluding characteristics and folic acid provided folate receptor targeting capacity. The nanoparticles have a high T2relaxitivity and therefore there are suitable for usage as MRI T2-contrast agent. Moreover, it is possible to detect the targeted cell optically because of the fluorescent group.

According to the results, MR imaging and fluorescence microscopy indicated considerable preferential intake of folic acid-conjugated polyglycerol-grafted [email protected] (FA-HPG-grafted [email protected]) nanoparticles by human ovarian carcinoma cells (SKOV-3) in comparison to both macrophages and fibroblasts. Such nanoparticles can be utilized in imaging ovarian cancer resection. More importantly, the nanoparticles are not cytotoxic as confirmed through MTT assays with SKOV-3, macrophages as well as 3T3fibroblasts. Therefore, the FA-HPG-grafted [email protected] can be effectively used in targeted disgnostic imaging with MRI along with synchronized intra-operative visualization of tumor margin.

(Liu P et al., 2014)

Superparamagnetic Fe3O4nanoparticles on graphene–polyaniline: Synthesis, characterization and their excellent electromagnetic absorption properties

In this article, preparation of ternary nanocomposites of graphene–polyaniline–Fe3O4 (GN–PANI–Fe3O4) using chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline and then co-precipitation was used to generate super-paramagnetic Fe3O4nanoparticles. The results indicated that that Fe3O4nanoparticles between 5-20 nm are evenly diffused on GN-PANI surfaces. GN–PANI–Fe3O4 exihibited better electromagnetic absorption rate in comparison to GN–PANI and GN–Fe3O4. The study results provide another means of designing outstanding electromagnetic absorption materials.

(Nune et al., 2009)

Green nanotechnology from tea: phytochemicals in tea as building blocks for production of biocompatible gold nanoparticles

This article discussed the ability of phytochemicals in tea in reducing salts equivalent to gold nanoparticles. The phytochemicals within the tea reduced gold nanoparticles and also adequately covered the gold nanoparticles. Tea generated gold nanoparticles are have outstanding vitrostability within buffer such as saline, HAS, as well as cysteine solutions. T-AuN coated with phytochemical indicated relatively high affinity to prostate and breast cancer cells. Moreover, analysis of T-AuNPs using MTT assays indicated that T-AuNPs are not toxic. The characteristics of phytochemicals in green tea indicate that they can be used in molecular imaging and therapy.

(Singh B et al., 2011)

Green tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): Mechanisms, perspectives and clinical application

According to authors, catechin which is found in green tea can treat various human illnesses because it is a strong antioxidant, prevents oxidative damage in cells and more importantly it is an antiangiogenic and anticancer agent and a modulator of cancer cell response to chemotherapy. EGCG mediates cancer chemo-preventive characteristics of green tea by inducing cancer cell death and promoting cell growth by changing the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, activation of killer caspases and through suppression of oncogenic transcription factors and pluripotency maintenance factors. Consequently, catechin in green tea can be utilized alone or by combining with other medications to prevent growth and spread of cancer or in cancer treatment.

(Thangapazham R et al., 2007)

Green tea polyphenols and its constituent epigallocatechin gallate inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

This article supports that polyphenols from green tea (GTP) protect against prostate cancer and also other kinds of cancer. This study explored the anti-proliferative effect of GTP and EGCG on the development of breast cancer. Study results indicated that both GTP and EGCG can affectively delay the tumor occurrence and also reduce the tumor burden. Additionally, it was established that GTP and RGCG treatment can induce cell death and hinder the proliferation.

(Shukla R et al., 2011)

Laminin receptor specific therapeutic gold nanoparticles (198AuNP-EGCg) show efficacy in treating prostate cancer

This experimental study developed innately curative gold nanoparticles obtained from the Au-198 isotope; the range of the 198 Auβ-particle and this provided cross-fire impacts of a radiation dose administered to cells in the prostate gland and was also effective in reducing the radiation dose to critical tissues adjacent to the capsule. The intratumorally injectable 198 AuNP-EGCg nano-therapeutic agent presents important developments in oncology to be used in effectively treating prostate cancer and other cancers as well.

(Nadagouda M et al., 2009)

In vitrobiocompatibility of nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (NZVI) synthesized using tea polyphenols

Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles were generated rapidly using tea polyphenols. Human keratinocyte cell (HaCaT) was used to examine NZVI particles for in vitro biocompatibility. The NZVI were found not be toxic within human keratinocytes. Furthermore, the NZVI nanoparticles elicited a prolific response in the cells.

(Ding H et al., 2013)

[email protected]/Shell Nanoparticles: The Silica Coating Regulations

with a Single Core for Different Core Sizes and Shell Thicknesses

This study analyzed the coating regulations of Fe3O4 nanoparticles using the reverse micro-emulsion procedure for the generation of [email protected] nanoparticles. The experimental results indicated that the small aqueous domain is appropriate for coating ultrathin [email protected] nanoparticles whereas the big aqueous is suitable for coating [email protected] nanoparticles. These results provide a strategy to synthesize [email protected] nanoparticles and also regulation applicable during their preparation.

(Khan N et al., 2013)

Oral administration of naturally occurring chitosan-based nanoformulated green tea polyphenol EGCG effectively inhibits prostate cancer cell growth in a xenograft model

This experimental study introduced a nanochemo-prevention concept through encapsulation of crucial bioactive food elements for their slow and constant discharge. The study presents the synthesis, categorization and efficiency examination of a nanotechnology-based oral formulation of chitosan nanoparticles encapsulating epigallocatechin-3-gallate (Chit-nanoEGCG) to treat prostate cancer. Results indicated that ChitnanoEGCG stops growth of cancer and also induces prostate-specific antigens.

Scientific Publication Analysis

  1. General structure of the10 scientific publications

  1. Abstract

  2. Introduction

  3. Materials and Methodologies

  4. Discussion of Results

  5. References

  1. How closely abstracts meet the «golden rule»?

Tabulation of the content by number of sentences for 10 abstracts


Novelty (Conclusions)


(Mohammad-Beigi et al., 2013)

(Wang et al., 2010)

(Liu P et al., 2014)

(Nune et al., 2009)

(Singh B et al., 2011)

(Thangapazham R et al., 2007)

(Shukla R et al., 2011)

(Nadagouda M et al., 2009)

(Ding H et al., 2013)

(Khan N et al., 2013)

Overall Percentage

Nominally Ideal Percentage



The background is extremely high and the conclusion is slightly low. However, the aim and the method are satisfactory because they range within the expected level.

c) Formal Peer Review Process

Shukla, R. 2012. Laminin receptor specific therapeutic gold nanoparticles (198 AuNP-EGCg) show efficacy in treating prostate cancer. PNAS, 109 (31)12429.

This article went through peer review where it was submitted, and reviewed whether it met the criteria. The document was reviewed by 2 reviewers in the first step and then reviewed again by the chief editor where all mistakes including grammatical were identified. It was then sent to the author who corrected the identified mistakes, was submitted to the chief editor again and then accepted for publication.

(d) How does the peer review process contribute to scientific integrity?

Peer review enables articles to be assessed and examined if they meet the criteria of publication. Information or studies that do not meet the criteria are rejected or revised to meet the required criteria and this ensures that all publications meet the set standards for scientific publication.

(e) Discuss whether un-refereed conference presentations and online material are good as scientific references? In particular, consider the transient nature of much internet content.

Un-refereed conference presentations and online materials are not good scientific references because they have not been assessed to examine if they meet the required threshold for publication. Additionally, this information keeps on changing and hence unreliable.

(f) Percentage of “unreliable” references are included in the reference lists

All 10 references have been peer-reviewed and hence the unreliable percentage is 0% and therefore all references in the reference list are reliable.

g) What is «doi» and what are the criteria for documents to get doi’s?

digital object identifier. It is used in identifying electronic documents. «DOI» stands for

Referring to an online document using its DOI provides steadier linking and also enables the document to be accessed easily in the internet. Documents should meet the contractual requirements for the DOI system and the DOI system is implemented by registering with bodies governed by International DOI Foundation.