About my work experience Essay Example
- Category:Engineering and Construction
- Document type:Assignment
This is the report for my work experience over the period from 1/12/2010 to 3/4/1011 at AAM Petrochemical Company, where located in industrial city, Saudi Arabia. My position was as operator at Linear Low density polyethylene plant (LLDPE). The plant consisted of catalyst unit, reaction unit and total pelletizing system (TPS).
Raw Material sources and Purification system:
The purification system is used to remove the impurities because these impurities consider as poisonous in the reaction. Hence there are ethylene, Butene, Isopentane, Hydrogen and Nitrogen purification systems.
Ethylene Purification system:
Ethylene is introduced to ethylene pre-heater, which used low-pressure steam. Ethylene is heated up to meet the requirement of the acetylene removal vessel and hydrogen is introduced to the feed stream to react with acetylene and producing ethylene and ethane. Then, ethylene passes to a CO removal interchanger where it is heated up before entering the Low-steam heater to bring the temperature up for the CO removal operation requirement through addition of caustic in different vessels and operating conditions. The CO removal vessel has a packing bed of CuO catalyst to convert CO to CO2. After that, the gas moves to the O2 removal vessel, where it converts O2 to CuO.
Butene Purification System:
Butene is introduced to the butene reservoirs and fed to the degassing unit: consists of a surge vessel and a degassing column. The column is designed to boil off the light gases that could be introduced with the butene; column consists of a re-boiler and a condenser, and moisture is absorbed through use of driers.
Iso-pentane purification system:
Iso-pentane is fed to the Iso-pentane bullet where it is stored. Then, isopentane is introduced to two dryers where moisture is adsorbed in molecular serves. The iso-pentane is the divided into four branches. The different branches are targeted to different requirements based on the expectations of the processes.
Nitrogen Purification system:
Nitrogen is received from utilities plant and it is firstly fed to the nitrogen per-heater (E-2104) to make the temperature up 90-100 °C for the O2 removal operation requirement. Then, the nitrogen is introduced to the deoxe vessel (V-2104). The vessel has a packed bed of Cu catalyst which used to convert O2 to CuO. After that, nitrogen is passed through the cooler to cool down the nitrogen before entering the dryers. Nitrogen is introduced to two dryers where moisture is adsorbed in molecular serves.
Hydrogen Purification System:
Hydrogen is received from Petrokemya through a pipeline and it is firstly introduced to the hydrogen dryers where moisture is adsorbed in molecular serves. Then, the pipe is divided into two branches; the first branch goes to the acetylene removal vessel for purification requirement, and for the Oxygen removal vessels for regeneration requirement. The second branch goes to the reactor.
The objective of the regeneration is reactive the bed of the vessels or dryers because the purification system needs frequent regeneration on vessels or dryers.
The Regeneration for dryers or vessels of Ethylene and Butene; Hydrogen, nitrogen and Iso-pentane:
Isolation the dryer or vessel by open the bypass & closed the inlet and outlet of the vessel or dryer.
Depressurize of dryer or vessel to 0 kg/cm2.
Flow purge by nitrogen.
Warm purge by heater to raise nitrogen temperature to 120 °C gradually.
Regeneration by raise nitrogen temperature to 330 °C gradually.
Cool Down by stop the heater and cool down bed temperature to below 100 °C.
Pre Load by using ethylene. (absent on hydrogen, nitrogen and Iso-pentane processes)
Pressure up of vessel or dryer.
Put the dryer or vessel in service by open the inlet and outlet & closed bypass.
The Reaction Unit:
The reactor loop consists of fluidized bed reactor, cycle gas compressor, and cycle gas cooler. The hydrocarbons are circulated into the reactor, compressor, and cooler loop with continuous feeding of fresh ethylene, butane, hydrogen, Teal, iso-pentane and nitrogen. The recovered hydrocarbon is fed to the reactor that comes back from the vent gas recovery system.
Catalyst is continuously injected through two catalyst’s feeders with a hold tank above each catalyst feeder and the ethylene is polymerized in the reactor and granule is produced with butane which add asa co-monomer. The reactor temperature is controlled at 86 °C with pressure at 21kglcm2.The density controls the butane, and hydrogen is controlled by the melt index. Iso-pentane works on increasing the efficiency of cooling water. The reactor’s compressor consists of one stage only, and the function of the compressor is fluidized bed and heat removal.
The quality production is the main target of plant operation. Hence, the operation has control’s range within Melt index (MI), density (ρ) and block density (Bρ).
Melt index (MI) has controlled of the melting point of polythene and it depends on hydrogen % in reactor. Hydrogen has controlled for the melt index by feeding for each grade. MI has control range, which are 1MI, 2MI, and 3MI. Density (ρ) has controlled for the polythene, which depends on butenemol % in reaction.
The Product Discharge System (PDS):
The product is discharged from the reactor through the product discharge system, which contains of tow sequentially operated lines. The first consists of a product chamber and a product blow tank. And the second consists of a product chamber and a product blow tank. Polyethylene granule is sent through the PDS to the product purge bin.
The Product Purge Bin (PPB):
The objective of product purge bin is dissolved the hydrocarbons by nitrogen & removal any remaining of TEAL or catalyst by used steam. The product purge bin is operated at a pressure of 0.24 Kg/cm2 with a temperature of 4-6 °C, which is lower than the reaction temperature. The undesired hydrocarbons generated as byproduct from the hydrolysis of teal and catalyst with steam are vent to flare through the low product purge bin filter. Nitrogen is used for purging and the hydrocarbons are vent out of the purge bin through the purge bin filter. Then, it sent to vent gas recovery system or to flare if required. The granule in the purge bin is transferred through the rotary feeders to the screeners. After that, the product is sent to the product chamber. Finally, the product is sent to TPS unit by the rotary feeders that called confined lines. While the oversize product transfers from screener to the dumpster.
The Vent Gas Recovery (VGR):
The vent gas recovery system is designed to improve overall monomer efficiency by recovering butane co-monomer with iso-pentane from the Product Purge Bin vent stream. In addition, it is designed to reduce nitrogen consumption by recycling nitrogen and light hydrocarbons. The Product Purge Bin vents gases to the flare or to the Vent Recovery System. Then, cooled down by low pressure cooler to around 40 °C. Any condensate formed is collected in the low pressure accumulator, which pumped in the inter stage accumulator. The gas is vented from the low pressure accumulator by the first stage of the VGR compressor. Then, the gas is cooled down. Any condensate formed is collected in the inter stage accumulator and pumped to the reactor feed stream by the inter stage condensate. Then, cooled by the high pressure cooler. After that, condensate by the high pressure condenser to -10 °C. Any condensate is collected in the high pressure accumulator. The high pressure condensate return pump returns the condensate to the reactor feed stream. The gas is vented from the high pressure accumulator to a heater where it is heated by low pressure stream to 45 °C to eliminate any possibility of liquid hydrocarbon formation. After that, the vented gas flows to the surge tank where it is used for conveying the product from the product blow tank to the product purge bin.
The catalyst consists of magnesium dichloride (MgCl2), titanium trichloride (TiCl3), THF, silica, Triethlauminum (TEAL), Diethl aluminum chloride ( DEAC) and Tri-n-hexylaluminum (TnHAl)
Silica is fluidized with nitrogen to remove the moisture that contained within the silica; the moisture is removed in the dehydration at approximately 200 °C and chemisorbed water, which is removed by dehydration at 600 °C. The dehydration is equipped with an electrical furnace to deliver the required heat for dehydration. After dehydration is completed, the silica is transferred by gravity to a blow tank, where located under the dehydration.
Teal on Base (TOB):
In this stage, silica is treated with Teal inside a jacketed mixing vessel. Teal is added with IC5 to form a solution. Then, the IC5 is evaporated and passed through the mixing filter. Then, pass to the recovered iso-pentane cooler, and further condensed is collected in the iso-pentane condenser. After that, it is sent to the recovered iso-pentane vessel.
Precursor Solution Preparation:
The precursor is the chemical complex MgCl2, TiCl3 and THF that precipitated inside the pores of treated silica. The precursor solution is prepared in a jacketed mixing vessel where Mg Cl2, TiCl3 THF are mixed together. First, MgCl2 is added to THF. Then, TiCl3 is added slowly to the solution; the agitated run between 60-70 °C. The solution is passed to a filter (F-2301) to remove the undissolved particles. During mixing of the solution, temperature must be sufficient for dissolving the low dissolving MgCl2 with good mixing to dissolve it but the temperature should not exceed 80 °C.
Silica Impregnated M-1 Precursor (SIMP):
The SIMP stage is conducted in another jacketed mixing vessel where the precursor solution is added to the treated silica (TOB) in the nix vessel. In the SIMP stage, the TOB/precursor mixture are agitated and then heated; the purpose is to evaporate THF. The THF content is very critical in determining the catalyst activity, resin particle size and bulk density. It also determines the amount of reducing agent used. Excess THF amount in the SIMP may cause troubles during transferring the SIMP and may affect the productivity of the catalyst by interfering with the reducing agent during the reduction stage.
TNHAL and DEAC are used for reduction and also to bind the THF in the catalyst. The reduction is accomplished by adding TNHAL and DEAC to the SIMP with IC5 as the slurry medium. Reaction is very fast, so need slow adding of the reduction agents while agitating is necessary to achieve uniform reduction. Finally, IC5 is evaporated and sent to the Iso-pentane condenser and also sent to the recovered Iso-pentane vessel.
The Startup & Shutdown:
After maintenance, the operator as to check entire processes and equipment. It is aimed at avoid leakages and safety factors. The pressure and associated operating requirements should reflect the specifications of the machines. The operator has to incorporate the views of the different stakeholders in starting to reduce accidents and threats associated to accidents.
The purpose of the shutdown is to fulfill the requirements of maintenance. It is also used to address the requirements of cycles and shifts. The procedure is normal and well document. For example, the steps includes stopping the catalyst injection to reactor and other processes including reducing the pressures. An operator has to follows the procedures to guarantee the safety of the equipment and people.
Roles and Responsibilities of an Operator in a Manufacturing Facility
The roles and responsibilities of an operator are dependent on the assigned duties. The structure of the facility also determines the limits and extends in which an employee can operate. An operator should have experience and knowledge on the technological requirements. For example, the workplace in question had the following units or subsections: catalyst unit, reaction unit, and total pelletizing system (TPS). The operator is supposed to tend or operate equipment to manage the chemical reaction or changes during the production and processing situations. The operator is supposed to move control settings resulting in making necessary adjustments on machines and equipment that affects the speed of yields, quality, and reactions. The operators other duties include management of signals and indicators, verification of conformity processes, analyzing the panel lights, flow meters and other important recording instruments.
Quality assurance and documentation are important to the success of any production process. An operator should record operating data, such as instrument readings, test results, and process conditions. The operator with other individuals should monitor processes and implement quality control measures in ensuring that standards are fulfilled. Therefore, the operator should advance the requirements of quality assurance since meeting the requirements of quality champions the entire requirements of the organization. Sample collection is also important, and the sample should be analyzed and stored for future quality assistance requirements.
The operator manages the entire operations of the machines and equipment. The operator starts the machines and supervises the cleaning and maintenance requirements. The operator starts different pumps and instruments to regulate the flow of gasses, vapors, oil, wastes and blending vessels. The operator requirements are also to patrol work areas and guide other individuals in fulfilling the requirements of the processing. For example, detection of any problem, the operator seeks additional assistance from other stakeholders to address the problem. For instance, the operator can notify the maintenance department or unit to correct equipment malfunctions to ensure the operations of the facility are appropriate.
In general, the role and responsibilities of an operator are to ensure the facility operates effectively. The industrial establishment relies on the efficiency of the machines, and the operator is responsible for achieving these requirements. Moreover, an operator is supposed to oversee the operations of other employees within the operation area. Hence, without the effectiveness and efficiency of an operator, a facility or manufacturing establishment cannot operate effectively.
Personal Reflective Practice
The experiences at AAM Petrochemical Company were unique in nature because I had not pursued the engineering degree. I worked at the company between 1/12/2010 and 3/4/1011 where I was exposed to different processes that defined my requirements and expectations in my career requirements. In the company, I was an operator at Linear Low-density polyethylene plant (LLDPE), where units included the catalyst, reaction and total pelletizing system (TPS). Through working at AAM Petrochemical Company, I learned numerous things. The learning involved the importance of safety, teamwork and adhering to the requirements of the procedure. I learned that a team member defines the success of an individual because the individual is within the environment to provide appropriate assistance. Following procedures and adhering to the regulations at AAM Petrochemical Company was also important. I learned the significance of following procedures when another employee in a different unit was burnt because the individual was not following regulations. I also witnessed a situation whereby the wrong amount of raw materials was used because the individual had family and personal complications. I realized that the working environment requires full focus, and it is important to address own complications before entering into the workplace. A single mistake of an employ can adversely affect the entire operations of an organization. Hence, following procedures and each individual playing their roles and responsibilities accordingly are important in fulfilling the organizational requirements and obligations.
Hands-on experience is important because it provides means of implementing the theory and other information learned. For example, I have continuously read about the importance of safety and witnessing the accidents, I realized that it is imperative to implement accordingly any safety and health related requirements. I also learned the importance of following regulations. I was able to learn additional means of accomplishing duties and responsibilities. For example, I was taught how to adjust the machines and learn the meaning of the significance. I was also informed not to rely entirely on the signals of the machines but also individual intuition was important. I learned that ethics and moral obligations were important in the engineering field. Adhering to regulations, following legislative directives and adhering to the organization goals are some of the measures to fulfill the organization requirements. The measures and quality assurances are also premised on ethical and moral directives. Thus, I accessed voluminous information that has improved my understanding and approaches in engineering workplaces and environments.
The skills and techniques obtained at AAM Petrochemical Company have advanced my need pursue and concentrate on engineering fields. The experience is hard to forget, and my studying experience has cemented by thinking about engineering. In the real sense, engineering involves numerous processes and techniques even the chairs we are sitting on. Moreover, AAM Petrochemical Company is an engineering and technological facility meaning that what I learned reflects the studying requirements. For example, understanding the signals of the machines are among the teaching subjects in engineering. Therefore, my experiences at AAM Petrochemical Company has advanced my understanding of engineering and understanding the different and numerous factors, which guides in studying engineering.
Safety at the Engineering (AAM Petrochemical Company) Workplace
The employee and employers have different roles and responsibilities in ensuring the organization operates effectively. Each individual or entity has to understand the measures required from them to advance the safety and health requirements. For example, the employers have to state the challenges and uniqueness of the working environment. For instance, a chemical factory is different from other factories. The employee, on the other hand, has to incorporate the safety measures whether from the employer or from own experience. Advancing safety at the workplace (AAM Petrochemical Company is used as an example of engineering workplace) requires collaboration between the employee and employer. At AAM Petrochemical Company, the employers and employees understood their respective roles and responsibilities in accomplishing the requirements of the company.
Training and education are important in creating and advancing awareness. At AAM Petrochemical Company, the company frequently provides training and information on the importance of safety. Each individual is required to attend training and a seminar once after three months. The purpose is to inform and create awareness about the changing environmental and situational factors. The employees are also informed on the significance of cleanliness, hygiene, and welfare in ensuring safety requirements are achieved. The training also enables the employees to understand methods of operations and measures to avoid in fulfilling the requirements of safety.
Frequent inspections are important to ensure the machines operate effectively. The inspection should not only be premised on the machines but also the storage of the chemicals and other raw materials. For example, at AAM Petrochemical Company, numerous chemicals are used, and the chemicals are labeled and classified accordingly. The storage and classification incorporate the threats and risks associated with the chemicals. The facilities also have to adhere to the compliance regulations. AAM Petrochemical Company champions compliance and frequently collaborate with independent institutions in ensuring the safety and health requirements are integrated into the organizational operations. Such processes ensure instances of risks or threats are at a minimum.
The workplace also contributes to the requirements of safety and health. The conditions at the workplace in ensuring safety and health includes lighting, working conditions, and management of emissions. AAM Petrochemical Company has structures in place to addresses the requirements. For example, emissions are monitored, and sensors are in place to detect any leakage. In addition, the offices and working environments at AAM Petrochemical Company are lit well based on the operational requirements. The working conditions are appropriate include the protective clothing, appropriateness of equipment and compensation/awareness of employees’ requirements.
AAM Petrochemical Company has effective risk management and reporting procedure. The company has created a template used in fulfilling the requirements of risk management. The risk areas are identified and measures integrated into ensuring the threats are contained. Moreover, any occurrence of an incident is well documented and reported since AAM Petrochemical Company has effective reporting procedure.
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