A Critique of the Literature Essay Example

  • Category:
  • Document type:
  • Level:
  • Page:
  • Words:



Health Journal Critique

A title is a pointer at a glance of what written content contains (Sharon, et al., 2003). From the title of the day surgery article, a reader gets the insight that the content in the article is a qualitative research collection regarding health issues in Australia particularly in day surgery. However, the title does not tell the reader which population is being referred as the case study. It is only after going through the abstract that a person finds out the author to the article actually was looking at public health institution in reference to women undergoing day surgery. (Sharon, et al., 2003) argues that, an abstract is a summary of a whole document which is written in a few sentences about 250 words at most. It conclusively gives the introduction, study design, processes, methods and data collection, data analysis, the conclusion and key words. The abstract in this article has clearly indicated the main objective of the study, where and who; to find out the experiences of women undergoing day surgery at public hospitals in Australia. The abstract has also indicated the form of data collection to be used; interviews. However, the abstract is insufficient on information regarding data analysis and findings.

This article is clearly relevant to nursing care practices. This is because nursing care is a highly involving profession in surgical activities within the hospital setting and outside (Voda, 2011). According to (Gilmartin & Wright, 2007), although the nursing innovation in day surgery is not deeply stipulated, the nurses are highly needed before and after patients’ day surgery.

The literature review although not indicated in the articles gives a clear flow of day surgery. It clearly looks into the day surgery issue from a wide view narrowing down to Australian public health hospital in reference to women. There is rich literature material indicating how the author was keen on the issues already collected and analyzed previously. The author also indicates the main aim of the study using qualitative research is that, previous studies have dealt with quantitative research methodology. In addition, the study also aimed at gathering the scarce information regarding Australia day surgery experience in hospitalization among women. Therefore, the author to the article day surgery actually supports (Dellinger, 2005) as regards to literature review. In his findings, (Dellinger, 2005) defines a literature review as information written by a person to consider the main points of what is already known in reference to theoretical and methodological contributions concerning a specific topic or idea using secondary sources. Literature review explains the gaps existing to the previous studies. According to the article despite the embracement of day surgery by most people due to its cost effectiveness, government funding policies, reducing patients waiting queue, advanced technology and improved anaesthetics, the patients experiences and expectations have not been analyzed. These facts build to the gaps in existence from various quantitative studies. However, despite the article author putting in aim of the study, the information does not tell the reader how the study plans to achieve its objectives. That is it has not highlighted mode of data collection to be used and why and data analysis technique. This would have given the reader what is expected within the rest of the document. Every research faces some drawbacks (Dellinger, 2005). However, this article did not tell the reader some of limitations the study is likely to face.

Aims and objectives are used in any study to highlight the project’s purpose and goals. The reader will use aims and objective to find out how the participants performed and whether they did succeed. In addition, the participants use the objectives and aims to evaluate the project depending on their own view. While objectives are a bit specific; aims are actually generalized about what the project is expected to achieve (Anderson, 2010). The day surgery journal has clearly highlighted two major aims which are: to find out the anxiety surrounding those attending a day surgery and experience issues. However, despite the article earlier informing the reader that the research is looking specific on women the objectives and aims are a bit generalized among patients and lack time limit.

Qualitative study design provides tools necessary for researchers to find out phenomena found to be complex within their context. Where the approach is correctly applied, it benefits health science researchers by helping them develop interventions, evaluate programs and develop theory (Baxter & Jack, 2008). Qualitative case study design is qualitatively applied where context and phenomenon boundaries are unclear, where the researcher wants to meet contextual conditions relevant to the study, where the participants behavior in the study is non-manipulatable and where the main aim of the study is to provide why and how answers to the questions in the study (Baxter & Rideout, 2006). Qualitative research uses different research tools such as artifacts analysis, observation and interview. Examples of main interview used include focus group, one-on-one and in-depth interviews. Artifacts analysis include objects and written text analysis. In addition, the instrument used for data collection is the researcher (Anderson, 2010). These facts are clearly stipulated in the study on day surgery article, the author is the one collecting the information and actually used observation and in-depth interviews. Basically, data in qualitative study is in the form of objects, pictures and words unlike in quantitative study where data is in form of numerals and statistics; opening a room for data analysis. In cases where qualitative research uses a study sample it is actually a small size. In addition, the study research design unfolds as the study progresses (Baxter & Jack, 2008). This fact explains why the author to the day surgery article found it necessary to combine quantitative and qualititative methods of research for the study. The privacy of information is indicated. However, there is no sufficient detail of how disruption was controlled. The writer should have given broad information pertaining participants privacy provision ethics. Nevertheless, towards the end of study design the researcher emphasizes that pseudonyms were used to ensure confidentiality

Any research, either qualitative or quantitative calls for analysis. Thematic analysis is highly applied in qualitative analysis. Although no sufficient details of how thematic analysis should be done, it is not depedent as other techniques of qualitative analysis like conversion and discourse analysis (Baxter & Jack, 2008). This fact can be used to explain why the author to day surgery article gave thematic analysis a priority in analysisng the collected information. Subsequent, triangulation was carried on the information collected. This is credible since triangulation is used where different research methods looking at the same issue are applied (Howitt & Cramer, 2007). In this case; the article used telephone survey, observation and indepth interviews. Therefore, the article author was actually in line with the research needs to ensure the information is valid and reliable (Sharon, et al., 2003).

The results obtained actually did answer the researchers question and or aims. The researcher also lists one of gaps existing in the day surgery study as use of small sample size. The study supports that the information gained is not actually representative. Nevertheless, the researcher has actually failed to use quotation basically recommended for spoken words obtained during in-depth interviews in qualitative research. The researcher has the duty to use the interview information which is simple and weighty to deliver the relevant information. Quotations are used to separate the researcher’s discussion from the interviewee (Anderson, 2010).

The discussion has actually dealt with the findings in reference to the aims. The article also related the findings with those collected in the literature review. For instances, it did establish that the patients experience following a day surgery in other areas are similar to those collected in Australia. In addition, just like nurses in other areas like UK the Australia nurses felt tediousness moving the patient now and then as though in a line of production. The article also did find some issues that are related to the health setting itself. For example, in case where laboratory analysis may seem challenging to provide it on the day of surgery, the staff should actually communicate to the patient in time. The need for patient to have a specific care taker and the need to improve patient information access through use of General Practitioners was also raised in the study. The article has done several crosscutting recommendations to the patients, staff and the health facility. The recommendations according to the research aim at improving service delivery and inputting positive experience to the patient to ensure a recommendable day surgery to patients and health staff. The facts in recommendation, therefore, open a door to further collaborative research. Bias in a study is inevitable. Recognizing and realizing forms of research biasness helps reduce high chances of bias. This ensures decisions; reliability and validity of findings are not affected in a qualitative research (Lumely and Daly, 2002). The researcher is usually mandated with noticing and reporting any form research during the study. However, the day surgery journal did not actually highlight any form of bias.

Acknowledgement is the act of recognizing those who played a role to make the study a success. It is usually done on a page of its own either before the abstract or at the end of the study (Anderson, 2010). The author to the day surgery journal among women in the Australian public hospital did realize that the excellent results would not have been achieved without the support from different sources. Therefore, the author did acknowledge the efforts from different sources a fact which is remarkable.

In a technical paper work, a researcher relies on different sources to build ground of the study. In addition, the findings also need to be supported by some literature. Therefore, a researcher should recognize other authors works both in-text citation and in reference list. The reference list contains all sources where particular information was gathered within the text (Sharon, et al., 2003). The article has actually recognized this fact both in-text and in the reference list which has alphabetically been listed. Nevertheless, there is also areas evidently which indicate the information was obtained from other sources and not recognized. For example, the 21st line in the result section talks about; theory….and the source not acknowledged. Moreover, it is not possible for a reader to tell the type of style used. For example,”Beauregard L., A., Pomp and M. Choiniere (1998) ‘Severity and Impact of Pain after Day-Surgery’, Canadian Journal of anaesthesia 45(4): 304-11 “. In the same reference also the third author in the list start with an initial. All writing styles require that referencing start with the surname then initial or other names. Despite clear indication in intext citation for the author to have use Harvard style the same was not clearly brought out in the reference list. This is because according to (Anglia Ruskin University Harvard style writing guide 2010), Harvard style should be like “Last name, then initials. (Publication year). “Paper title”. Journal title in (italics), volume, pages. Nevertheless, is good noting that the writer was keen to ensure that same author; different publications was well listed with the earliest first; for example the references to “Mitchel M. (1997 and 2000). Notably, shortcoming of the day srgery study is that it lacks conclusion. Conclusion in a study actually crowns the study by giving a summary of the findings. It contains key points through out the different levels of study Anderson C. (2010).

To conclude, the article day surgery has other minor errors within the document which can actually be taken to mean that the writer did not proof read the document. For example, line 20 on the patient management section”……Consequently” lacks a comma. This indicates lack of sufficient cross check. This minor mistake actually affects the reading enthusiasm of the reader and flow of information. The information; any way, has a nice flow from introduction to discussion.


Anderson, C. (2010).” Presenting and Evaluation Qualitative Research.” Am J. Pharm Educ. 74(8):1-7.

Anglia Ruskin University, (2010): Guide to the Harvard Style of Referencing Second Edition.

Baxter, P. & Jack, S. (December, 2008). “Qualitatitive Case Study Methodology: Study Design and Implementation for Novice Researcher.” The Qualitative Report Vol.13 (4):544-559.

Baxter, P. & Rideout, L. (2006). “Decision Making of 2nd Year Baccalaureate Nursing Students.” Journal Of Nursing Education, 45(4):121-128.

Dellinger, A. (2005). “Validity and the Reviews of Literature.” Research in Schools, 12(2):41-54.

Gilmartin, J. & Wright, K. (2007). “The Nurse’s Role in Day Surgery: A Literature Review”. International Nurse Review 54(2):183-190.

Howitt, D. & Cramer, D. (2007). Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology. Prentice Hall: Pearson education.

Lumley, J. & Daly, J. (eds) (2002). “Bias in Qualitative Research Designs” Australian and New Zealand

Journal of Public Health.

Sharon, J., Gerson & Steven, M. (2003). Technical Writing: Process and Product. Pearson.

Voda, S., C. (2011). “Same-Day Surgery Nursing: It Takes Teamwork.” Am. J. Nurs 111:24-25.