7th September 2011 Essay Example
Topic: Business Project
7th September 2011
E-government also referred to as digital government, connected government, online government or electronic government refers to the connectivity of the government to its citizens as well as the interaction of the government with commerce and business, the interaction of the government with its employees and the interaction of the government with its agencies. In this regard, e-government can be summarised as comprising of the following G2E, G2C, G2G and G2B. According to Jeong (2007) the most important function of e-government is to enhance the interaction of the government with the public through the internet and other web-based technologies (Jeong, 2007).
Jeong held that the Middle Eastern countries have shown an increasing trend in the adoption and the utilization of e-government as a one stop shop for the services provided by the government and government agencies such as municipalities. Kaylor, Deshazo and Van Eck (2001) noted that citizens and businesses can now gain access to vital information about the services they expect from their government and the extent to which different government projects have been completed or are yet to be completed.
Dubai municipality in the Middle East is one of the best examples on how e-government has been employed widely by government agencies to closely interact with the citizens and businesses in the Middle East (Kaylor, Deshazo and Van Eck, 2001). The agency employs e-government in enhancing the delivery of services to its citizens such as registration of businesses over the internet. Currently, more than 20,000 companies are registered into the municipality’s data portal which enhances the communication of the companies with the government (Koh & Prybutok, 2003).
Saudi Arabia has also adopted e-government strategy as an efficient communication channel between the government and its citizens. More materials on government projects meant for the benefit of the public are posted on the government website www. Saudi-gov.sa (Gartner Group, 2000). The e-government strategy has been widely used by the government to pass a wide range of information to the public, businesses and visitors concerning the employment and labour regulations, environment and health, safety and traffic, reports from government agencies and how the public can send their complaints and queries regarding the services delivered by the government as well as information about education and the social life in Saudi Arabia (Gartner Group, 2000).
E-service is defined as the delivery of services through the internet and web-enabled technologies (Rowley, 2006). According to Ndou (2004) some of the e-services that companies have striven to support through web and internet enabled technologies include customer support services. In this regard, Rowley (2006) has defined e-services as the use and application of information technology in enhancing performance and delivery of services to the customers.
Through the application of e-service the citizens becomes the service receivers while the public agencies become the agencies of service delivery. The main channel of e-service is the internet or websites. E-service has revolutionised the manner in which service is delivered to the customers and the public through the call centres. Lu (2001) has identified numerous benefits associated with e-service. Among the benefits of e-service include increased contacts between companies or businesses and their customers, enhancing the positive image of the company, increasing the knowledge possessed by the customers pertaining to the products produced by the company, broadening the pace at which companies can reach the market, gaining a competitive position as compared to other competitors in the market, increasing the rate at which companies can communicate with their customers on an individual basis and enhancing the pace at which new customers are entered into the company’s customer base.
Janda, Trocchia & Gwinner (2002) observed that e-services is faced with a number of challenges which crop up from the lack of sufficient technological infrastructure that can support the delivery of services using the internet or the websites. Insufficient penetration of technology or information communication technology in many global countries is one of the major causes of inadequate e-service sin major parts of the world. The other challenge is increased online security issues and threats such as security holes and spyware which makes it difficult for exchange of confidential and private information.
A software licence agreement is defined as a contract between the purchaser or the consumer of the software and the licensor or the company that designs and distributes the software (Evans & Yen, 2006). The software license serves as an instrument that governs the redistribution and usage of the software and the agreement gives the user the power to use or redistribute the software. According to Evans & Yen (2006) software license is incorporated into the software upon purchase or the software license agreement is bundled with hardware (Evans & Yen, 2006).
Software license agreements are either categorised as either open and free source license agreements or proprietary license agreements. The impact on the rights of the end users is what distinguishes the different types of software license agreements. Heiner (2007) reiterated that apart from imposing restrictions and granting rights on the manner in which the software should be used software license agreements also contain important information and guidelines which allocate responsibility and liability between the parties to the agreement (Heiner, 2007).
The license manager is the tool applied in regulating and controlling how and where the running of the software should take place. Specially drafted software license agreements are entered into between government entities and large business organizations in order to ensure that license agreements are honoured by all the parties to the agreement (Heiner, 2007). It is imperative to note that the end user of particular software must agree to the terms and conditions set out in the software license agreement in order to use the software.
According to Earl (2004) services pricing refers to the measures taken to attach an accurate and fair price tag to the services provided or offered by the company. However, Earl (2004) noted that many business people and service companies face major difficulties in pricing their services because services cannot be quantified like products. Some apply inappropriate strategies and approaches such as lowering their services in order to capture a wider market niche while others raise their service prices to maximize their profits. Earl (2004) observed that the acceptability of services by the customers and the success of the service company in the market is dependent upon the ability of the company to market and sell its services to the targeted consumers. In this regard, the author held that service pricing should be done in a way that it does not send away the customers.
According to Frigstad (2005) one of the main steps that should be taken into consideration in services pricing is evaluation of the competitors’ prices in order to set the prices at par or slightly below those of the competitor. This is important because setting prices higher than those of a similar competitor would push away customers. The second step that must be taken into consideration in services pricing is determining the target market where the services are to be offered (Frigstad, 2005). The reason for this is that the market comprises of both rich and poor consumers. Prices set for the rich consumers should be different from the prices set for the poor consumers which mean that prices for different services should be differentiated.
Earl N. (2004). «Creating Customer Value: The Path to Sustainable Competitive Advantage» (Van Nostrand Reinhold)
Evans, D. & Yen, D. (2006). E-Government: evolving relationship of citizens and government, domestic, and international development. Government Information Quarterly, 23(2): 207-235.)
Frigstad, D. (2005). «Customer Engineering: Cutting-Edge Selling Strategies«, Oasis Press.
Gartner Group. (2000). “Key Issues in E-Government Strategy and Management,” Research Notes.
Heiner, I. (2007). E-Service opportunities and Threats, Journal of value chain management, 1, 11.
Janda, S., Trocchia, P. & Gwinner, K. (2002). Consumer perceptions of Internet Retail Service Quality. International Journal of Service Industry Management (13:5), 412-431
Jeong C. (2007). Fundamental of Development Administration. Selangor: Scholar Press.
Kaylor, C., Deshazo, R. and Van Eck, D. (2001). The essence of e-governance is » The enhanced value for stakeholders through transformation, Government Information Quarterly, 18, 293–307.
Koh, C. & Prybutok, V. (2003). «The three-ring model and development of an instrument for measuring dimensions of e-government functions», Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 33 No.3, pp.34-9.
Lu, J. (2001). Measuring cost/benefits of e-business applications and customer satisfaction”, Proceedings of the 2nd International Web Conference, 29–30 November, Perth, Australia, 139-47.
Ndou,V.(2004). E-Government for developing countries: Opportunities and Challenges, EJISDC 18, 1, 1-24
Rowley, J. (2006). An analysis of the e-service literature: towards a research agenda. Internet Research, 16 (3), 339-359
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