#509259 — Order Details Essay Example
- Category:Engineering and Construction
- Document type:Assignment
Task 4. (a) Heat loss through various ways
The task involves the application of the first law of thermodynamics in operation as well as in the solving of the problems thereby. The law is based on the energy conservation that has been adapted in the energy saving process. It states that the internal change of energy in a system can be given equally to work done by a system subtracted from the heat added or absorbed in the system. (Kradjam, 2005, pp. 515), The isolated energy in the system is constant whereby there can be the transformation of energy from one form to the other. Besides, no energy is created or lost in the system. The calculation for the same is as given below.
The rate of heat loss cause in the in-cylinder Jacket of the water cooling system occurs in the head, the blocker as well as in the radiator. Due to the leakages that might be evident in the air compression system, as discussed in task 2, changes of heat loss are available. The heat loss is variated from one compressor to the other. The heat loss rate in the through the cylinder jacket is rampant when the leakages are high. (Kradjam, 2005, pp. 515)
In the intercooler, where water circulation occurs, there is cooling of the system. A lot of heat is produced by the turbocharger. Cooling is done for the allowance of further heating. The heat lost in the system is calculated by the subtraction of the temperatures of the outlet liquid from the inlet fluids’ temperatures. As explained in task two on the safe operations or reciprocating the air compressor as well as the principal sources of the faulty reciprocation of the air compressor, the heat loss has also been discussed too. (Petrovsky, 2008, pp. 488)
The absence of the bursting disc that is made of copper leads to the system recording high heat loss thus the air compression not being economical as well as efficiently satisfied on comparison to the set objectives for the process.
Task 5: A. The basic principles of a reaction turbine and an impulse turbine.
The basic principles of the impulse turbine reaction explain the jet of steam as being directed to the bucket-shaped rotor blade of the turbine. It is here where the exerted pressure leads to the rotation of the rotor thus the reduction of the steams’ velocity. The action results to the impaction on the kinetic energy of the impulse turbine to the blades. Therefore, the turbines then change their magnitude of the steam’s flow beside the Constance in the pressure value as it goes through the blades of the rotor. It is due to the constant value of the Chambers’ cross section. In conclusion, the turbines impulse can also be said to be the constant pressure turbines.
Working principles of the impulse turbine.
To the turbine, high pressured steam is passed in along the axis of the machines. The passage is through the alternatively fixed multiple rows as well as the blades that are in motion. It’s from the inlet port of steam which is located towards the point of exhaustion where the cavity of the turbine gets larger for the allowance of the steam’s expansion as a result of the temperature and pressure change. The blades that are stationary in the system are used as the nozzles for the enlargement of the steam as well. (Basinski, 2006, pp. 515)
Task 5. b. Primary application of impulse and reaction turbine
The turbine is used in the power plant for geothermal production. The various fields of application include the use in the windmill construction as well as the steam turbines. Besides, both the reaction and impulse turbines are applied in the gas turbines for geothermal production as well as in the water turbines. The primary use of the turbines is the production of heat as well as electricity through the utilization of the readily available resources thus proving to be economic activity. Also, the usage of turbines efficiency is determined by the availability of the primary fuel which includes steam, gas, wind as well as water, which power the turbines to rotate. For the success of the project, high pressure is required from the various fuel sources mentioned previously. (Basinski, 2006, pp. 515)
Tack 5. c. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plant
Combined heating and electricity plant is a system that is used in the production of electricity which is also termed add power and heat, which is usable. In the production, the main aim is the recovery of the energy that is wasted in the air compression that could be used in the heating process. The combined heat and power (CHP) plants are also defined as the definition of the CHPDH (Combined Heating and energy distinction heating). The system helps in the minimization of heat loss in the form of steam clouds to the atmosphere. (Kradjam, 2005, pp. 514)
The CHP is exceedingly efficient in the minimization of heat loss in the air compression industries. There is a high rate which adds up to approximately 80% of the energy that could be lost if it was not applied in the system. The comparison has also been made of the other firms which include the power stations of gas whose range of heat loss control is ranging from 48% to 54%. The coal power plants record a significant inability to control heat loss of approximately29% of the total heat lost. (Kradjam, 2005, pp. 515)
Besides, the CHP is neutral to fuel whereby the system can use either the fossil fuels of even the renewable fuels for its operations. There is a broad range of the appropriate technologies in the achievement of the success in the practical. Therefore, for each CHP, there a capability offered for the efficiency as well as the effectiveness of the usage of primarily valuable energy resources. On another field of study, the CHP is found to be a local provider of electricity as well as heat. It also offers cooling facilities at times in several users’ types. The energy used is locally available thus the CHP having an added positive impact on the economic field. As a result, the excess heat that is lost as well as the expenses that are incurred in the distribution as well as in the transmission of electric energy through the local networks of distribution or even through the National Grid as well.
On the usage of the local networks in the energy distribution, around 8% of heat is lost in the energy transportation to the users from the source of it’s’ generation. Besides, trigeneration is the usage of the units of CHP together with the absorption chiller for the provision of the heating, cooling as well as electricity. For the utilization of the heat wasted in the system, the CHP unit emits required energy for the production of the chilled water.
Task 6. c. (i) The performance of combined heating and power plant in a pass out turbine.
In the pass-out turbine, there is a consistent as well as a continuous flow of a given quantity of steam. The steam that is passed out is used in the heating process in the air compression chambers. Besides, the steam passed out can be cooled in the course of economizing the loss of the raw material thus the cooled steam recycled back in the system. (Basinski, 2006, pp. 515)
Task 6. c. (ii) The performance of combined heating and power plant in the pressure turbine.
Since the purpose of the combined heat and power plant is the utilization as well as the minimization of heat loss from the system, the pressure turbine needs it for it is successful as well as the economic purpose of its activities. The production of electricity is accompanied by the manufacture of heat too. Therefore, in the pressure turbine, power generation rates are very high. Therefore, it is respective that the production of heat is great too. Heat is lost from the chambers in the form of steam clouds thus the CHP are working on ensuring that the heat loss rate has been reduced to the minimum percentage possible. (Basinski, 2006, pp. 515)
Task 6. c. (iii) The performance of combined heating and power plant in the gas turbines.
In the gas turbines, Cogeneration always occurs which is also another terminology for the CHP. It includes the production of efficient heat as well as electricity in a simultaneous process. Therefore there are high chances for the utilization of the loss of energy exhausted from the gas turbines. Besides, there is the generation of the useful steam in the heat exchanger. The heat produced, with no additional consumption of fuel, is used in various applications. As a result, the efficiency in the use of CHP system has been exceeded up to more than 80 % thus the CHP is the most effective as well as the efficient method of heat, power and electricity production as well as utilization. (Basinski, 2006, pp. 516)
Task 6. (a) Basic steam power plant circuits’ diagram
Task 6. b. Cycle diagram on the operation of the Rankine cycle
Diagram 6.1 The Rankine Cycle:
Diagram 6.2 The Rankine cycle:
The Rankine cycle
In the Rankine cycle, various steps are involved before its’ completion is attained. Each stage in the cycle is concerned with the change in the fluids state that is being worked on. The process run from process one through process four. (Petrovsky, 2008, pp. 837)
Process 1-2: the fluid that is being worked on at this stage is pumped from a low-pressure level to the level where the pressure is very high. As a result, little amount of energy is input in the process to facilitate the pumping of the fluid.
Process 2-3: in this process, the fluid is under a very high pressure. It is led to the Boiler where at a constant temperature heating is done. Use of heat whose source is eternally based is used. A pair of results or one among them is recorded where the fluid is converted to a dry vapor or a saturated vapor.
Process 3-4: when the solution obtained in the previous process is a dry gas, saturation is done upon it thus inflation occurring through the turbines that are used in the system. The turbines here acts as a power-generating device for the success of the process. Due to the deflection of the temperatures as well as the pressure of steam in the cycle, probabilities of condensation to occur are very high.
Still in process 3-4: the other probable result is sought when the vapor is wet. Therefore the steam is saturated too with the vapor from the saturation chamber being directed to the condenser where condensation occurs, with the pressure as well as the temperature kept constant. On completion of the processes, the temperatures of the cooling coil lead to the change in the condenser’s temperature as well as the pressure. Therefore the fluid is said to have gone through a phase-change.
Task 6. C. reasons for preference of Rankine Cycle to Carnot Cycle
The Rankine cycle after the test was done using it have proven it to be the most convenient way to the users applicable the cycle. It is ranked in comparison to the Carnot’s cycle. Besides, the Rankine;s cycle offers the preferred as well as the best results for the project as well as proving to be more economical about the Carnot’s cycle among others. (Petrovsky, 2008, pp. 848)
Logbook creation maintenance and production
Air Compressor Maintenance Log
solving the assignment from fundamental research rights.
As a solution to the basic rights in initial studies, the allowance of real practicals on the functioning of the air compressor as well as the energy production through the use of turbine machines is a necessity. This will lead to the development of informed researchers who have the adequate experience required.
On conclusion of the project, the discussion has provided the Carnot cycle to work with as well as making its comparison to the Rankine’s cycle which could be applicable in the performance of the task as well.Besides, the impulse and the reaction turbines are of great importance to the generation of heat and electricity.
Basinski, E.M., Martin, R.L., Meece, M.W. and John, H.B.I., Carrier Corporation and Thomas Industries Incorporated, 2006. Air compressor. U.S. Patent 5,515,769.
Kradjan, W.A., and Lakshminarayan, S., 2005. The efficiency of air compressor-driven nebulizers. Chest, 87(4), pp.512-516.
Petrovsky, J. and Roloff, H., Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft, 2005. Reciprocating piston air compressor. U.S. Patent 4,498,848.
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