5 Summary journals Essay Example

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5 Summary Journals

Reading 1:

Nietzsche focuses on the Greek concept of agon and holds it as an important one in his works. He rues that cultural value of Europe is losing agon fast, but there is hope in the sense that individuals can still be instilled with it. Agon refers to contest or struggle and it is believed that Nietzsche lived a life of inner, if not external struggle. But all said, Nietzsche has raised as many questions as he has answered, or perhaps he has raised more than he has answered, and today scholars really wonder was he actually advocating struggle, a certain amount of cruelty and violence in society and humans. That is not sure, but one thing that is, is that this concept runs uniformly across almost all of Nietzsche’s works.

Reading 2:

Sigmund Freud’s disillusionment about human nature is palpable and so is about the state, which he considers as the supreme institution of the civilised world. He refers to the monopoly of violence as perpetuated by the state and thinks it is powerful because it emanates from the bad primitive instinct, which is the state of nature. The human civilisation has not been able to triumph against it. Instead the most humble people have been instigated to fight the enemy who are none else but their own people, people who are part of the very same civilisation. There is an intertwining of human civilisation of actions both within and outside.

Reading 3:

Foucault’s contention has been that in early times «right of life» is effectively a «right of death». That takes one to earlier times, when it was supposed that sovereign had over his subjects both right of death and right of life. It was a matter of a simple decision whether or not someone deserved to live or to die. This power was exercised as a power of ‘deduction’ — just as deduction of takes, privileges, property or life from subjects. In the contemporary context, Foucault suggests it is no longer what this used to be. That is to say that right of death is no longer a deduction, and the primary interest of power now is in improvement, extension and securing of life.

Reading 4:

Foucault uses social context to anaylse punishment. He further attempts to see the impact that is had on punishment as power changes. Going back to 18th century, he states that punishment was ceremonial in nature and prisoner’s body held the centre stage of punishment. Public execution in this period was symbolic of the King’s power to get the punishment enacted. Reform calls emanated from this century itself, but not with an intention to favour the prisoner but to see more power being vested in the type of punishment delivered. Subsequent to this a threat of punishment was suggested in the penal system which was thought would discourage lawbreaking, and measures as these came to be known as «norm».

Reading 5:

Frantz Fanon’s The Wretched of the Earth discusses nature of colonization and the impact it exerts on both colonized and the colonizers. He raises a point of critical concern and that is the violence, which he calls an inevitability that decolonization leads to apart from spontaneous actions and rebellions. This is reflective of an innate oppressor-oppressed relationship. The tension between the two is the pivot that leads to a struggle for order and freedom. There is a continuous dynamics of violence going on in the colonized worlds until the world is nothing but the dichotomous regime creating a line of division between rich and the poor.