The Endeavour’s Voyage
s voyage from Plymouth to the South Pacific as from 1768 was led by James Cook, together with a naturalist, James Banks and an observer, Charles Green from the Royal Geographical Society. There were also two Swedish naturalists, Herman Diedrich Sporing and Daniel Carl Solander in addition two Artists, Alexander Buchan and Sydney Parkinson (State Library of New South Wales par.5). This paper describes Captain James Cook’s first voyage, particularly along the East Coast of New Holland from Cape Howe to Cape York. The Endeavour’
, 1770, a member of the voyage, Lieutenant Hicks, noticed land which extended from the Northeast to the West, marking their first sighting of the New Holland’s East Coast. The location of the ship was at the Bass Straits entrance. Members of his group sighted a low hill which he named Point Hicks (National Library Council 23-27). th first arrived in New Zealand from Tahiti in October 1769. Cook was at that time looking for a famous place called the Great Southern Island, which he felt could not be New Zealand, and therefore decided to head back home. While on the way on April 19The Endeavour
therefore sailed on Australian waters for the first time as from April 29 1770. The name Botany Bay was given to the place by Cook because of the many plants that they came across while there (National Library Council 27-31). Endeavour continued with its journey to the north. It later came to Cape Howe, an area that they noted had white sandy shores, green woods and mostly low land. After Cape Howe, the lands seemed better and they could see smoke from time to time, showing that there were people around. It was however only after passing Bateman’s Bay and Cape Dromedary that people were sighted. Although Cook wanted to stop at Jervis Bay, the wind did not allow, so they moved on to Stingray Harbour which was later renamed Botany Bay. The Endeavour The
reached Howick’s Islands and left two days later. It was able to reach Bird Island on August 20, then Bushy Island and Cape York the following day (Captain Cook Society par.4). Endeavour then passed Broken Bay, and in a slow journey that was made difficult by the winds, they were able to reach Cape Hawke then Bustard Bay and Cape Capricorn. However, when it approached Cape Tribulation at the Great Barrier Reef in Northern Queensland, it hit a coral and developed a leak. Cook found a place to harbour and named it the Endeavour River. The crew remained here for seven weeks for repairs, and this place was later named Cooktown. During the time, Dr. Banks studied the flora and fauna of the area and was able to write the first ever description by a European of the kangaroo. They later proceeded to Cape Townsend and Cape Hillsborough. By June 11, they reached Hope Islands. On August 11, the The Endeavour From Botany Bay, there was a further journey northwards to where Cook named Port Jackson, a place whose entrance later became the city of Sydney.
enabled the exploration of New Holland’s East Coast. The main outcome of the voyage was an improvement in knowledge about the place. Future scholars, for instance, could have benefitted a lot from the geography and natural history that was described by the written records. There was also provision of new information about the people, features and civilizations in these areas. There was also the naming of places, because many of the names that Cook and his group gave have remained.The Endeavour In conclusion, James Cook’s
, 2016. Accessed on 9 August 2016 from < http://www.captaincooksociety.com/home/detail/the-first-voyage-1768-1771>The First Voyage (1768-1771)Captain Cook Society.
, 1970. Accessed on 9 August 2016 fromJames Cook: His Early Life and the Endeavour VoyageNational Library Council.
, 2012. Accessed on 9 August 2016 from <http://www2.sl.nsw.gov.au/archive/discover_collections/history_nation/voyages/discov ery/endeavour.html >Cook’s Endeavour Voyage and the British discovery of AustraliaState Library of New South Wales.