4Reducing the risk of Infection after Caesarean Section Delivery Essay Example

4Reducing the risk of Infection after Caesarean Section Delivery

Reducing Risk of Infection after Caesarean Section Delivery

Table of Contents

1Reducing Risk Of Infection After Caesarean Section Delivery

3Introduction

3The Aim of the Report

3Scope of the Report

4Background to Study

5Data Collection Methods

6Data Analysis

6Conclusion and Recommendations

8References

Introduction

In the recent days, caesarean section delivery method has been in the spotlight over the development of surgical site infections and urinary tract infections as well as endometriosis complications. In most cases, the surgical site infections occur after disparage from the hospital hence questioning the performance practices in the surgery room (Gregson, 2011, p. 35). This means that such infections are used as indicators of the surgery process or the outcomes. In addition, the increased rate of surgical site infection after caesarean section has led to the increased rate of re-admission of patients in most parts of the world. This reduces the time for bonding between a woman and the new baby. There are many cases that are associated with surgical site infection after caesarean section delivery including age related causes, and antibiotic prophylaxis. Additionally, some surgery practices may also increase the occurrence of the surgery site infection (Reichman & Greenberg, 2009, p. 218). For example, the patient’s state of condition before surgery may influence the occurrence of infections after surgery. Moreover, the degree of would be contamination during surgery may also determine the occurrence of surgical site infection. This is also influenced by the duration of the surgery. However, the study of strategies to reduce surgical infections after caesarean section delivery has not been researched well and documented. Therefore, there is the need to develop a bench making set up how nurses can contribute to the reduction of the surgical site infections (Barwolf et al., 2006, p. 157).

The Aim of the Report

This report aims at developing a benchmark strategy on how nurses can contribute to a reduction on surgical site infections after caesarean section deliveries.

Scope of the Report

The occurrence and maintenance of surgical site infections are one of the challengers in the medical surgery. This is due to the occurrences of these infections after the surgery. This compromises the outcomes of the surgical process hence posing as an outcome indicator of performance. There have been efforts in reducing surgical site infections after surgery including the use of antibiotics and evidence based practices. However, the research on how to reduce surgical site infections after caesarean section delivery has not been fully explored. This is because; the occurrence of surgical site infections in caesarean delivery is still high resulting in the readmission of patients (Levin et al., 2011, p. 322). Therefore, there is the need to develop strategies on how to reduce the surgical site infections in patients after caesarean delivery in order to achieve better outcomes. In developing the strategies, nurses have a role in the implementation of the strategies in order to ensure better outcomes after caesarean section delivery. This report focuses on ways in which evidence based practises can be used to reduce the risk of surgical site infections after caesarean section delivery (Reichman & Greenberg, 2009, p. 219).

Background to Study

The rate of surgical site infections resulting from caesarean section delivery has increased in most parts of the world. The surgical infections in various surgical procedures contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality in the nursing industry (Reichman & Greenberg, 2009, p. 215). The surgical site infection contributes to over 30 % of the nosocomial infections are the most common infections after surgery. The increased cases of surgical site infection can also be associated with lack of proper practices by the surgeons and nurses during the management of surgical procedures (Riley et al., 2012, p. 821). This leads to an increase in the hospital expenses and jeopardize the surgery outcomes. This has increased some costs involved in caring for the surgical patients in the hospital settings. There are different causes which increase the risks of surgical site infections in caesarean section delivery (Weinberg et al., 2001, p. 2359). These include bacterial infections such as staphylococcus and Enterococcus bacteria. In addition, lack of pathogenesis among the nurses is one of the factors which contribute to the surgical site infections in the hospital settings. Previous studies in response to increased surgical site infection after caesarean section delivery considered in monitoring the patients after delivery by the use of antibiotics and other drugs. The risk factors identified in surgical site infections include the closure time of the wounds and body mass index of the individual (Olsen et al., 2010, p. 279).

Data Collection Methods

The program was done in a hospital setting where women from low income families were selected (Barwolf et al., 2006, p. 157). The patients were administered with simple methods that improved the prescribing of prophylaxis and antibiotics. The outcome indicators in the study were the occurrence of surgical site infections. Data collection was done in hospital settings where patients were identified on a voluntary basis. The collection included a surveillance conducted by the nurses in the ward settings. These nurses use standard defined by research in collecting the surveillance data (Gregson, 2011, p. 36). The nurses involved in the study used the caesarean section participants on a daily continuous from the discharged patients. The surgical site infections in the hospitals were then stratified on a risk index where each participant was given a standardized rate. The rate of infection was expressed in terms of the number of patients that were infected in very 100 patients who had undergone caesarean section surgery. In addition, the number of deliveries in the hospital per month was provided by the hospital administration (Weinberg et al., 2001, p. 2362). The number of caesarean section delivery in the hospitals was determined by the surveillance system. Therefore, surveillance was done after the patients were discharged from the hospital. Additionally, the data included came from midwives after the discharge of the patients. The midwives involved in the post discharge information gathering were given a questionnaire which was to be filled on the wound status at least ten days after the day of surgery. In addition, the patients were given a post-operative questionnaire which was returned after 30 days since the day of surgery (Riley et al., 2012, p. 822).

Data Analysis

The results of the surveillance revealed that the rate of infection was dependent on how often an individual was undergoing the procedure. Patients who had participated in surveillance showed a decrease in the rate of infection. The data collected was analysed using the Epi Info (version 6.02, USD Inc., Stone Mountain, Ga). The surveillance program was conducted for three months in the participating hospitals. Before the improvement in the study, participants had received prophylaxis and antibiotics immediately after caesarean section (Horan et al., 2008, p. 312). The results indicated that those women who received immediate prophylaxis administration had reduced the rate of surgical site infect6ion after caesarean section delivery (Barwolf et al., 2006, p. 157). The systems of improvement used in the study included implementation of protocols used in the administration of the prophylaxis and antibiotics. In addition, the increase in antibiotics in the surgical rooms and maintenance of highly evidence based standard in all procedures (Lamont et al., 2011, p. 195).

Conclusion and Recommendations

The degree of would be contamination during surgery may also determine the occurrence of surgical site infection. This is also influenced by the duration of the surgery. However, the study of strategies to reduce surgical infections after caesarean section delivery has not been researched well and documented. Therefore, quality improvement procedures used during caesarean delivery are useful in reducing surgical site infection after caesarean section delivery. Thus, nurses can reduce the infections by ensuring the practice of evidence based practices which ensure early administration of prophylaxis and antibiotics through improved protocols. This report recommends that, nurses should follow improvements guidelines in order to reduce the risk of infection after caesarean section delivery. In addition, the administration of prophylaxis should be done in the first 48 hours after the caesarean section delivery. This will reduce the cases of surgical site infections. Therefore, there is the need for nurses and health professionals to practice good clinical practices during surgery and after surgery in order to reduce surgical site infections.

References

Barwolf, S., Sohr, D., Geffers, C., Brandit, C., Vonberg, R., Halle, H., & Gastmeier, P., 2006. Reduction of surgical site infections after Caesarean delivery using surveillance. Journal of Hospital Infection, vol. 64, no. pp. 156-161

Gregson, H., 2011. Reducing surgical site infection following caesarean section. Nursing Standard, vol. 25, no. 50, pp. 35-40.

Horan, T., Andrus, M., Dudeck, M., 2008. CDC/NHSN surveillance definition of health

Care-associated infection and criteria for specific types of infections in the

Acute care setting. American Journal of Infection Control, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 309-332.

Lamont, RF., Sobel, J., Kusanovic, J., Vaisbuch, E., Mazaki-Tovi, S., Kim, S., Uldbjerg, N., & Romero, R., 2011. Current Debate on the Use of Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Caesarean Section. BJOG, vol. 118, no. 2, pp. 193–201.

Levin, I., Amer-Alshiek, J., Avni, A., Lessing JB, Satel A, Almog B., 2011. Chlorhexidine and alcohol versus povidone-iodine for antisepsis in gynaecological surgery.

Journal of Women’s Health, vo. 20, no. 3, pp. 321-324.

Olsen, M., Butler, A., Willers, D., Gross, G., Hamilton, B., Fraser, V., 2010. Attributable costs of surgical site infection and endometritis after low transverse

Cesarean delivery. Infection and Control Hospital Epidemiology, vo. 31, no. 3, pp. 276-282.

Reichman, D., & Greenberg, J., 2009. Reducing Surgical Site Infections: A Review. Reviews in Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 212-221.

Riley, M., Suda, D., Tabsh, K., Flood, A., & Pegues, D., 2012. Reduction of surgical site infections in low transverse caesarean section at a university hospital. American Journal of Infection Control, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 820-825.

Weinberg, M., Fuentes, J.M., Ruiz, A.I., Lozano, F.W., Angel, E., Gaitan, H., Goethe, B., Parra, S., Hellerstein, S., Ross-Degnan, D., Goldmann, D.A., & Huskins W., 2001. Reducing infection among women undergoing caesarean section in Columbia by means of continuous quality improvement methods. Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 161, no. 19, pp. 2357-2365.