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4 SAO {Situation , Action and outcome} each contains 300 words Essay Example

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Clinical assessment


Clinical assessment


I did my clinical assessment at the medical ward where I had worked as a registered nurse for a few years. During the period of work, I encountered different patients under different situations but I tried my best to help them through my nursing experience and models. Below are some of the situations, actions, and outcomes of four different encounters I had.

Situation 1

During my routine duty as a nurse at the hospital, I came across a woman who had come to see treatment and was looking totally low in terms of her approach in the queue. I privately called the patient and asked her about the problems she was undergoing. On the narration of every symptom that she was undergoing in a private room as a caregiver and communication facilitator (Chenoweth, Gould, and Saint, 2014). I suspected she was suffering from urinary tract infections (UTI). This was as a result of her past experiences and medical situations like burning feelings when in urinals, feeling of pain and pressure in her lower abdomen as well as having smelling urine (Foxman, 2014). She became surprised and asked for the next way forward.

I informed her to reach the doctor with the sample of her urine for the laboratory test in order to be certain of the problems. The laboratory test equipment was ready and I give her direction to the test room. She was diagnosed positive and I directed her to the doctor who prescribed the drugs for her in relation to the findings (Flores-Mireles et.al, 2015). I provided the prescribed drugs to her and also offered her advice concerning the drug usage (Lo et.al, 2014). I informed her of the benefits of completing the dose and dangers of stopping the dose after feeling better. I also informed her of different ways of avoiding the reinfections which I constantly reminded her on calls.

After few days the patient called to inform me that she was feeling better. She told me that she shared with her neighbor my advices and the neighbor was constantly being affected by the disease was no longer suffering. Her trust to my words also increased as well as to the residents who were close to her.

Situation 2

This was the day I felt threatened in my career as a registered nurse in the hospital. My fellow nurses especially those who were on practices left me alone in the room as the patient developed a situation that other nurses could not comprehend with too much shaking in the body due to difficulty to breathe (Barnes, 2014). I recognize my role as a caregiver, decision maker, manager of care and patients advocate and took up my responsibility. The patient in question was suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (Christenson et. al, 2015). The nurse that was assigned to the patient had felt weak and went to seek for medical attention. As a progressive disease, I believed this was the day that the disease had worsened in the life of the patient.

I went direct to the patient and tried to inhale through her nose to try open up the lungs for its operation (Uzun et. all, 2014). At the moment I called for inhalers as well as breathing mask in a shouting voice and one of my fellow nurses brought it on call. I placed the breathing mask on the patient’s nose and mouth as I realized that the more I tried to open up the lungs through mouth to mouth inhalation, the patient was feeling better. I set up the mask and the patient stopped shaking and I understood that he was fully breathing (Han et. al, 2014). I later requested the doctors to provide the patient will the oral steroids to help reduce the inflammations that he might had developed in the lungs as I acted as the patient’s advocate.

The patient regained his normal body form and latter was breathing easily. This was the day I felt that I represented the highest level of professionalism in carrying out my duty as a nurse. Up to date I still feel I saved a life which was would have been lost due to fear and scare as advocacy was also recommended by the doctors.

Situation 3

With the continuous stay at the hospital, I became confident and I felt good for the days spent. However, one of the days I was assigned the patient who was suffering from acute pancreatitis which is sudden inflammation of the pancreas and last for a short time (Acevedo–Piedra et. al, 2014). The patient had been admitted for care after surgery on the broken shoulder. The patient developed frequent vomiting, increased heart rate, and fever on the entire body. Due to the weak condition of her body, I felt she needed intense care of my role as a nurse (Leppäniemi, Johansson, and De Waele, 2014). I talked to the patients to determine exactly what she was feeling and she told me she had no idea, but informed me of the food she had taken.

I provided the patient with anti-vomiting tablets to help her regain and stop the vomiting for a few hours (Koo, Chinogureyi and Shaw, 2014). I changed the patient’s sleeping position and made sure that she was comfortable to breath as well as well covered to help her generate her individual heat. I went to the doctor to inform him of the patient’s conditions and when he came, he evaluated the patient and established that she was suffering from acute pancreatitis (Zerem, 2014). The doctor prescribed the drugs and was assigned the duty to administer drugs to her since she was not able to take them alone due to surgery.

The patient stopped vomiting and told me she was feeling better after the drugs administration. The patient only trusted my services and could send for me in case she needed any help for her conditions. I developed more confident on this day and I appreciated my profession as I considered it a calling made to me. I learnt some of the symptoms of the acute pancreatitis as well as those of chronic pancreatitis as the doctor made it clear to me.

Situation 4

I met with a patient who had been suffering from too much dehydration and was starting to feel flank pain. The patient shared with me the history of her family and from her story I realized that there has been influence of kidney stones hereditary development (Daudon, Bazin and Letavernier, 2015). From the history and the feeling that was a shared, I judged that nephrolithiasis was the reason for the pain (Cheungpasitporn et. al, 2016). The patient also told me of the problems in urinations and the development of the weakness at some points of the day.

I informed the patient on the ways through which dehydration could be avoided and advised on the minimum water intake for the body on daily basis. Through the help of the doctor’s advice, I constantly supplied the patient with the pain-controlled medication as well as the medications which were facilitating the passage of the urine through the urethra (Türk et. al, 2016). After few days, the patient was better but the complaint was that the feeling was not 100%. I told him to visit the doctor and find a way of booking for his lithotripsy surgery to remove stones from his bladder (Yuruk et. al, 2015). I gave the patient confidence in facing the surgery and he was happy that his problem was to end after the surgery.


My skills and professionalism was put into integrity and it proved to have picked as per the requirements of the nursing codes of ethics. I believed my courage and work as a care giver was perfectly done in this context. I was fully guided by the codes of ethics in the interaction and relation between me, patients, doctors, and other stakeholders in the hospital.

References list

Acevedo–Piedra, N.G., Moya–Hoyo, N., Rey–Riveiro, M., Gil, S., Sempere, L., Martínez, J., Lluís, F., Sánchez–Payá, J. and de–Madaria, E., 2014. Validation of the determinant-based classification and revision of the Atlanta classification systems for acute pancreatitis. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 12(2), pp.311-316.

Barnes, P.J., 2014. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clinics in chest medicine, 35(1), pp.71-86.

Chenoweth, C.E., Gould, C.V. and Saint, S., 2014. Diagnosis, management, and prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Infectious disease clinics of North America, 28(1), pp.105-119.

Cheungpasitporn, W., Rossetti, S., Friend, K., Erickson, S.B. and Lieske, J.C., 2016. Treatment effect, adherence, and safety of high fluid intake for the prevention of incident and recurrent kidney stones: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of nephrology, 29(2), pp.211-219.

Christenson, S.A., Steiling, K., van den Berge, M., Hijazi, K., Hiemstra, P.S., Postma, D.S., Lenburg, M.E., Spira, A. and Woodruff, P.G., 2015. Asthma–COPD overlap. Clinical relevance of genomic signatures of type 2 inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 191(7), pp.758-766.

Daudon, M., Bazin, D. and Letavernier, E., 2015. Randall’s plaque as the origin of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Urolithiasis, 43(1), pp.5-11.

Flores-Mireles, A.L., Walker, J.N., Caparon, M. and Hultgren, S.J., 2015. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 13(5), pp.269-284.

Foxman, B., 2014. Urinary tract infection syndromes: occurrence, recurrence, bacteriology, risk factors, and disease burden. Infectious disease clinics of North America, 28(1), pp.1-13.

Han, M.K., Tayob, N., Murray, S., Dransfield, M.T., Washko, G., Scanlon, P.D., Criner, G.J., Casaburi, R., Connett, J., Lazarus, S.C. and Albert, R., 2014. Predictors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation reduction in response to daily azithromycin therapy. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 189(12), pp.1503-1508.

Koo, B.C., Chinogureyi, A. and Shaw, A.S., 2014. Imaging acute pancreatitis. The British journal of radiology.

Leppäniemi, A., Johansson, K. and De Waele, J.J., 2014. Abdominal compartment syndrome and acute pancreatitis. Acta Clinica Belgica.

Lo, E., Nicolle, L.E., Coffin, S.E., Gould, C., Maragakis, L.L., Meddings, J., Pegues, D.A., Pettis, A.M., Saint, S. and Yokoe, D.S., 2014. Strategies to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections in acute care hospitals: 2014 update. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 35(S2), pp.S32-S47.

Türk, C., Petřík, A., Sarica, K., Seitz, C., Skolarikos, A., Straub, M. and Knoll, T., 2016. EAU guidelines on interventional treatment for urolithiasis. European urology, 69(3), pp.475-482.

Uzun, S., Djamin, R.S., Kluytmans, J.A., Mulder, P.G., van’t Veer, N.E., Ermens, A.A., Pelle, A.J., Hoogsteden, H.C., Aerts, J.G. and van der Eerden, M.M., 2014. Azithromycin maintenance treatment in patients with frequent exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COLUMBUS): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 2(5), pp.361-368.

Yuruk, E., Binbay, M., Ozgor, F., Sekerel, L., Berberoglu, Y. and Muslumanoglu, A.Y., 2015. Comparison of shockwave lithotripsy and flexible ureteroscopy for the treatment of kidney stones in patients with a solitary kidney. Journal of Endourology, 29(4), pp.463-467.

Zerem, E., 2014. Treatment of severe acute pancreatitis and its complications. World J Gastroenterol, 20(38), pp.13879-13892.