Mobile Phone – A Device That Integrates Multiple Wireless Technologies Essay Example

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Table of Content

Table of Contents

Abstract 3

2.0 Body 4

2.1 Mobile and wireless technologies 4

2.2 Benefits and risks 5

2.3 Mobile Wireless Phones 6

2.4 Wireless Standards Development 7

3.0 Conclusion 12

4.0 References 13

Mobile Phone – A Device That Integrates Multiple Wireless Technologies


The dawn of mobile phones have undoubtedly transformed social and business interactions considering that access to the internet no longer rely on the wired system since it can be achieved through an internet-enabled mobile device ubiquitously as long as there mobile access point. These access points commonly referred as hot spots can be accessed in public building such as educational institutions hotels and airports. Furthermore, scores of wireless networks are continually being installed in private homes and commercial buildings. Given that mobile access to wireless networks is increasing, the private and public space demarcation has been redefined. Mobiles phones have turned out to be very crucial part of our day-to-day life. The present-day development is an attributed a number of generations. The objective of this piece is to demonstrate how a mobile phone is a device that integrates multiple wireless technologies.

1.0 Introduction

Wireless technologies can be characterized by a number of factors such as the transmission speeds supported, frequencies range where the network operates, and underlying mechanism for transmission like code division multiple access (CDMA), frequency division multiple access (FDMA) or time division multiple access (TDMA). Another factor is the architectural implementation, like mobile, fixed, or in-building. Besides that, CDMA, TDMA, Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and other mobile wireless technologies are distinguished by diverse factors, such as handoff mechanisms, frequency reuse and network topology, coding algorithms, and many others. As pointed out by Yan and Shi (2013), Smartphones have turned out to be more powerful with richer entertainment functions, larger storage capabilities, reinforced processors, and improved communication techniques. Wireless technologies such as Bluetooth are some of the new features added to smartphones. The Bluetooth technology has transformed how people utilize digital devices at office or home. Thanks to this technology, by Yan and Shi (2013) posits that the traditional wired mobile devices have been transferred to wireless devices. Through one link, wireless technologies have made it possible for mobile users to communicate with almost seven other mobile phones simultaneously. Wireless technologies have enabled mobile phones users to realize the Smart Living concept since they can control home heating and cooling system, lighting, air conditioning, as well as service robots through their mobile phones.

2.0 Body

2.1 Mobile and wireless technologies

As mentioned by Taniar (2008), wireless and mobile systems are based on computing and mobility. In this case, mobile computing can be described as the user’s continuous accessibility while wireless connotes a means of communication with no wires. Malladi and Agrawal (2002) posit that wireless and mobile technologies have improved significantly; thus, wireless devices have been made remarkably affordable and convenient. In the modern-day world, wireless networking has become suitable for situations where physical media installation is considered unfeasible and that need on-the-spot information accessibility. Thanks to wireless technologies, it has become possible for mobile users to access both data and voice. Some years ago, workers used to walk around with many binders of documentation, which could not be updated. However, this has changed because of wireless technologies since it is possible to connect a mobile phone via a wireless network to a local-area network (LAN) at the workplace. Similarly, sales personnel can stay in touch with consumers with regard to services and products, status updates, placed orders, as well as inventory through via mobile phones. Clearly, wireless technology has enabled people to access a multiple- listing database. At many universities, students can access notes and e-books through their mobile phones by connecting wirelessly to the university’s information database. In addition, people can gather information about flight schedules, ticketing as well as luggage through their mobile phones.

2.2 Benefits and risks

and physical security. Lack of hard wired network boundaries leaves the mobile phone users vulnerable to both exploitation and intrusion. Some of the security risks related to the integration of wireless technologies to mobile phones include exploitation, intrusion, and leeching. Urbas and Krone (2006) posits that the increased utilisation of mobile phones to store and access large amounts of data brings about the risk of theft or loss, which could compromise the information security. These risks can be reduced if mobile phones users know the security issues associated with the wireless technologies.ICTAs pointed out by Ma (2012), advancement in communications systems has resulted in scores of advantages to mobile and wireless technologies. For instance, wireless technologies bring forth flexibility since mobile phones can be integrated with these technologies with minimal disruption and at minimal cost. Furthermore, mobile users can connect to the internet anytime and anywhere; thus, eliminating the need for being physically present at the office. According to Urbas and Krone (2006), although wireless technolgies have brought forth convenience for mobile phone users, they pose security risks. Akin to the cyberspace, these technologies blur the difference between the virtual and real, between

2.3 Mobile Wireless Phones

According to Kim, Mims, and Holmes (2006), mobile wireless phones have become popular, and they are normally utilised as a tool for personal communication. Some of the mobile wireless phones include the web-enabled cellular which enables users to access the web. Wireless application protocol (WAP) is utilised in web-enabled cellular as the system for connecting the Internet via the mobile phone. Another example of a mobile wireless phone is the wireless handset, which is a form of a cellular phone which offers a system of communications with additional features, like a WAP browser, voice-activated dialling as well as a two-way text messaging. Smartphones are also considered as one of the mobile wireless phones. Muniyal, Prakash, and Sharma (2012) posit that wireless mobile phones have a number of technical limitations like small display, restricted battery power, less memory size and less powerful CPU than devices in the wired infrastructure. Besides that, a mobile phone does not have PKI services’ computing capabilities like certificate validation, generation and verification of digital signature, key generation, verification of Certificate Revocation List (CRL), and so forth. Due to such wireless environment’s technical limitations, mobile phone’s Certificate Management
Protocol processing as well as downloading CRL needed for certificate verification has turned out to be very challenging.


Figure 1: The PKI Scenario and Model (Muniyal et al., 2012)

Mobile technology, according to Patil, Karhe, and Aher (2012) is a technology utilised for cellular communication. Over the years, Mobile CDMA technology has rapidly evolved leading to a standard mobile device with an embedded web browser, a handheld game console, GPS navigation feature, as well as instant messaging client. The wireless communication networks have turned out to be more pervasive and the wide spread wireless communication adaptation started accelerating in the mid-1990s. New technologies and standards are currently being implemented with the goal of allowing the wireless networks to substitute copper lines or fibre optic. The Bluetooth technology is evolving and it is inclined to replace the troublesome appliance communication cords in the workplaces

2.4 Wireless Standards Development

The phased wireless networking standards evolution is commonly considered as generations. According to Mir and Kumar (2015), the 0G was the first wireless telephone, which became accessible after the Second World War. During this period, calls were set up by mobile operator sets and there the number of channels was very few. Such mobiles did not support the handover feature such as changing the channel frequency. Zero generation was followed by first generation (1G), which only utilised the analogue technology and were primarily developed for voice services. Some examples of 1G include the Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS). They were developed to communicate with the mobile phones via distributed transceivers network.


Figure 2: AMPS Architecture (Kumar & Poornima, 2014)

The 1G technology was disadvantageous because they lacked data service needed for converting voice into digital signals. Furthermore, they had an unreliable hand off, low capacity, and the voice quality was so poor. This resulted in the development of second generation (2G) mobile wireless networks, which allowed for the utilization of digital technology. According to Cisco (2016), the 2G wireless networks offered data services support. Some examples of 2G network standards include CDMA, GSM, and TDMA.


Figure 3: 2G GSM (Kumar & Poornima, 2014)

The third generation (3G) is a mobile communication system that sought to eradicate scores of problems associated with the 2G as well as 2.5G networks such as the incompatible technologies like CDMA and TDMA and low speed. The 3G technology was beneficial because it offered higher rates of data transmission and improved capability speed. The 3G technology utilises packet-switching technology that makes it faster and more effective as compared to2G systems. Some of the new features delivered by 3G include navigational maps, e-mail, Web browsing, video conferencing, TV streaming, and many others.


Figure 4: CDMA Architecture (Kumar & Poornima, 2014)

The third generation plus (3G+) technology introduced the all-IP switching core concept, whereby the IP-based signalling and IP-based transport replaces the TDM-based MSC infrastructure. The fourth generation (4G) technology is an IP-based mobile system which offers access through radio interfaces collection. It has improved security capabilities and offers high Quality of service. The 4G technology allows for a low cost per bit, location based services, video conferencing, speed, high security, telemedicine, as well as capacity.


Figure 5: 4G technology (Kumar & Poornima, 2014)

. This technology includes camera, MP3 recording, large phone memory, video player, and many other features (Le et al., 2015).Local Multipoint Distribution Service, and Network- widebandUltra CDMA, Large Area Synchronized CDMA, Multi-carrier wireless internet network maintained by IPv6, Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing, is afifth generation (5G) more scalable, efficient, as well as reliable wireless services. It offers a wider variety of services (Bhalla & Bhalla, 2010). The 4G technology allows for Akintoye (2013), theAccording to


Figure 6: 5G Wireless Technologies (Kumar & Poornima, 2014)

According to the Economist (2016), switching to 5G would enable the operators to reverse that decline by allowing them to do such things as market converge the makers of telecoms and computers equipment, as low margins and standardisation would force them together. The 5G would increase the speed of communication with high data rate and higher bandwidth (Karla & Cuhahane, 2014).


Figure 7: Evolution of Wireless Network (Karla & Cuhahane, 2014)

As pointed out by Galas (2015), mobile wireless communication has developed rapidly and there are attempts to decrease the number of technologies to one global standard leading to fifth, sixth, and seventh generation. Kumar, Liu, Sengupta, and Divya (2010) argue that mobile communications systems have changed how mobile phone users communicate by integrating mobility and communications.

3.0 Conclusion

In conclusion, this piece has demonstrated how a mobile phone is a device that integrates multiple wireless technologies. Wireless communication technologies are complex to differentiate since they have been around for a while; still, the wireless standards have evolved to support the data, video as well as voice communication convergence. This rapid revolution or evolution is attributed to individuals looking for instantaneous and ubiquitous access to information as well as the internet assimilation for personal use and into business practices. Nowadays, people are moving with their internet access; thus, information can be accessed at anytime, anywhere.

4.0 References

Akintoye, S. B. (2013). WIRELESS MOBILE COMMUNICATION — A STUDY OF 4G TECHNOLOGY. Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 2(9), 42-52.

Bhalla, M. R., & Bhalla, A. V. (2010). Generations of Mobile Wireless Technology: A Survey. International Journal of Computer Applications, 5(4), 26-32.

Cisco. (2016). Mobile Wireless Overview. Retrieved from Cisco:

Gawas, A. U. (2015). An Overview on Evolution of Mobile Wireless Communication Networks: 1G-6G. International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication, 3(5), 3130 – 3133.

Kalra, B., & Chauhan, D. (2014). A Comparative Study of Mobile Wireless Communication Network: 1G to 5G. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology Research, 2(3), 430-433.

Kim, S. H., Mims, C., & Holmes, K. P. (2006). An Introduction to Current Trends and Benefits of Mobile Wireless Technology Use in Higher Education. Association for the Advancement of Computing In Education Journal, 14(1), 77-100.

Kumar, A., Liu, Y., Sengupta, y., & Divya. (2010). Evolution of Mobile Wireless Communication Networks: 1G to 4G. International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology, 1(1), 68-72.

Kumar, S. K., & Poornima, .. (2014). A Study of Wireless Mobile Technology. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, 4(1), 470-474.

Le, L. B., Lau, V., Jorswieck, E., Dao, N.-D., Haghighat, A., Kim, D. I., & Le-Ngoc, T. (2015, September 26). Enabling 5G mobile wireless technologies. Retrieved from SpringerOpen:

Ma, J.-G. (2012). Third Generation Communication Systems: Future Developments and Advanced Topics. London: Springer Science & Business Media.

Malladi, R., & Agrawal, D. P. (2002). Current and Future Applications of Mobile and Wireless Networks. Communications of the ACM, 45(10), 144-146.

Mir, M. M., & Kumar, S. (2015). Evolution of Mobile Wireless Technology from 0G to 5G. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, 6(3), 2545-2551.

Muniyal, B., Prakash, K., & Sharma, S. (2012). Wireless Public Key Infrastructure for Mobile Phones. International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications (IJNSA), 4(6), 111-118.

Patil, C. S., Karhe, R., & Aher, M. A. (2012). Development of Mobile Technology: A Survey. International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, 1(5), 374-379.

Taniar, D. (2008). Mobile Computing: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications. Hershey, Pennsylvania: IGI Global.

The Economist, T. (2016, February 20). Wireless: the next generation. Retrieved from The Economist :

Urbas, G., & Krone, T. (2006, November ). Mobile and wireless technologies : security and risk factors. Retrieved from Australian Institute of Criminology :

Yan, M., & Shi, H. (2013). Smart Living Using Bluetooth-Based Android Smartphone. International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks, 5(1), 65-72.