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(Electrical Engineering)Literature review report on the active power cost functions with typical variables for each generator(Diesel generator, solar PV and storage(LA and Li))

Literature Review 9

Literature Review

Literature Review

Diesel generator

Fuel diesel generator is commonly used in the power generation in most of the countries. This is despite the increasing concerns related to the aspects of environmental pollution. The cost involved is also an important aspect that has contributed to the use of the fuel diesel generation (Wu, 2011). The fuel cost of the diesel engine generator can be expressed using a quadratic polynomial function. The quadratic polynomial function of the real power output can be expressed as follows.

(Electrical Engineering)Literature review report on the active power cost functions with typical variables for each generator(Diesel generator, solar PV and storage(LA and Li)) = α + β.(Electrical Engineering)Literature review report on the active power cost functions with typical variables for each generator(Diesel generator, solar PV and storage(LA and Li)) 1 + γ.(Electrical Engineering)Literature review report on the active power cost functions with typical variables for each generator(Diesel generator, solar PV and storage(LA and Li)) 2

(Electrical Engineering)Literature review report on the active power cost functions with typical variables for each generator(Diesel generator, solar PV and storage(LA and Li)) 3 is the fuel cost of the diesel engine

α, β and γ are the coefficients of the generators, the information can be obtained from the manufacturers.

(Electrical Engineering)Literature review report on the active power cost functions with typical variables for each generator(Diesel generator, solar PV and storage(LA and Li)) 4 is the power output of the diesel engine generator, it is expressed in kW and the figures has to be known.

(Electrical Engineering)Literature review report on the active power cost functions with typical variables for each generator(Diesel generator, solar PV and storage(LA and Li)) 5

Generator ownership costs, Source, Atrex Energy

The factor that influences the diesel fuel generator includes the emission costs, maintenance costs and operation costs. Diesel is a non-renewable energy source and this influences the costs as more efforts are being put in place to ensure that renewable energy sources are utilized. The equation plays an essential role in the process of determining the costs involved when using the diesel fuel generators (Viana & Pedroso, 2011).

(Electrical Engineering)Literature review report on the active power cost functions with typical variables for each generator(Diesel generator, solar PV and storage(LA and Li)) 6

Diesel fuel generator energy consumption graph, Source, Atrex energy

Solar photovoltaic

The solar photovoltaic is a renewable energy distributed generation that is considered environmental friendly. The cost issues are mainly related to the power output when dealing with the solar photovoltaic which is also considered less costly as compared to the diesel fuel generators (Christober & Rajan, 2011). In order to determine the output of the photovoltaic module, the following equation can be used.

(Electrical Engineering)Literature review report on the active power cost functions with typical variables for each generator(Diesel generator, solar PV and storage(LA and Li)) 7

The following graph can be used for representing the solar irradiation

(Electrical Engineering)Literature review report on the active power cost functions with typical variables for each generator(Diesel generator, solar PV and storage(LA and Li)) 8

The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is an important aspect that is used in the evaluation of electricity produced by the renewable sources. This metric considers different aspects of cost that are associated with production using the solar photovoltaic (Ahn, Nam, Choi & Moon, 2013). The metric takes into account capital costs, financial rates and ongoing system costs. Solar is much cheaper as compared to diesel generators as it does not require the use of fuel. It however has challenges in terms of consistency. The following formula can be used in the calculation of the Levelized Cost of Electricity.

LCOE = (Electrical Engineering)Literature review report on the active power cost functions with typical variables for each generator(Diesel generator, solar PV and storage(LA and Li)) 9

The total lifetime costs are associated with purchase, maintenance and operations (Misas, 2010). The total lifetime energy production can be calculated through the use of the output equation.

Fuel cell

In the market, there are four different types of fuel cells which are available. This includes the Molten Carbonate Fuel cell (MCFC), Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) (Kuo & Lu, 2013).The fuel cells can be used for different capacities although the most common use is the medium voltage. The main fuel input that is used is the natural gas and this is a non renewable source of energy. The fuel cost of the fuel cell generators can be calculated using the following equation:

(Electrical Engineering)Literature review report on the active power cost functions with typical variables for each generator(Diesel generator, solar PV and storage(LA and Li)) 10 = (Electrical Engineering)Literature review report on the active power cost functions with typical variables for each generator(Diesel generator, solar PV and storage(LA and Li)) 11

(Electrical Engineering)Literature review report on the active power cost functions with typical variables for each generator(Diesel generator, solar PV and storage(LA and Li)) 12 is the price of natural gas

(Electrical Engineering)Literature review report on the active power cost functions with typical variables for each generator(Diesel generator, solar PV and storage(LA and Li)) 13 is the net electrical power generated at interval J

J and (Electrical Engineering)Literature review report on the active power cost functions with typical variables for each generator(Diesel generator, solar PV and storage(LA and Li)) 14 represents the fuel cell efficiency at an interval J

In order to obtain an accurate calculation, all the variables have to be established. The cost is also influenced by various variables including the price of the natural gas (Chung, et al, 2011). Currently, the price of natural gas has been experiencing some decline and this has impacted positively on the ability to reduce the cost of the fuel cells. However, it is still expensive as compared to solar and diesel generators. Its use has also been influenced by various factors including environmental concerns.

Storage batteries

The storage batteries are mainly used for providing power in low application. However, it has a lower unit price as compared to the other energy sources (Lasseter, 2011). The use of storage batteries is also increasingly becoming popular in most of the countries including Australia. The cost of storage batteries has been on the decline in the recent past. The material used in the development of the storage batteries is an influential factor in terms of determining the cost. The battery storage is also cheaper as compared to the fuel cells. Currently, the analysts indicate that the storage battery industry is evolving as it is increasingly becoming popular and effective (Yu, et al, 2013). The improvement in technology has also played an effective role reducing the costs associate with the storage batteries. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) can also be used for the calculations of costs associated with the storage battery. This can be represented as follows:

LCOE = (Electrical Engineering)Literature review report on the active power cost functions with typical variables for each generator(Diesel generator, solar PV and storage(LA and Li)) 15

The storage cells however require frequent replacement which may impact negatively on the costs (Kim, et al, 2011). This is considered one of the main limitations of the storage cells.

References

Wu, L., (2011). A Tighter Piecewise Linear Approximation of Quadratic Cost Curves for Unit

Commitment Problems. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
26(4), 2581-2583.

Viana, A., & Pedroso J.P., (2011). A new MILP-based approach for Unit Commitment in power

production planning. In: Proc. of the VII ALIO–EURO – Workshop on Applied Combinatorial Optimization, Porto, Portugal, pp. 9-12.

Christober, C., & Rajan, A., (2011). An Evolutionary Programming Based Tabu Search Method for Unit Problem with Cooling-Banking Constraints. Journal of Electrical Engineering
(1), 11-18.

, 398–405. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 4Ahn, S.J., Nam, S.R., Choi, J.H., & Moon, S.I., (2013). Power scheduling of distributed generators for economic and stable operation of a microgrid.

; Yale Wind Energy Report; Yale University: New Haven, CT, USA.Wind Energy Potential at Yale’s West Campus Using Modern Large-Scale TurbinesMisas, H. (2010).

, 6045–6059. Energies 6Kuo, M.T., & Lu, S.D., (2013). Design and implementation of real-time intelligent control and structure based on multi-agent systems in microgrids.

, 1200–1216. Eur. Trans. Electr. Power 21Chung, I.Y., et al., (2011). Moon, S. Control parameter optimization for multiple distributed generators in a microgrid using particle swarm optimization.

, 1074–1082. 99 IEEE Power Energy MagLasseter, R.H., (2011). Smart distribution: Coupled microgrids.

, 6423–6438. Energies 6Yu, W., et al., (2013). Operation optimization based on the power supply and storage capacity of an active distribution network.

, 1657–1686. Energies 4Kim, H. M., et al, (2011). An intelligent multiagent system for autonomous microgrid operation.