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Еssаy Lеаdеrshiр Style — Dеmосrаtiс Lеаdеrshiр

  • Category:
    Nursing
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Running head: ЕSSАY LЕАDЕRSHIР STYLЕ — DЕMОСRАTIС LЕАDЕRSHIР 1

Еssаy Lеаdеrshiр Style — Dеmосrаtiс Lеаdеrshiр

3Abstract

4Introduction

4Leadership in Nursing

5Types of Leadership

5Autocratic leadership

5Visionary leadership

5Transactional leadership

6Transformational leadership

6Leissez-faire leadership

6Democratic leadership

7History of Democratic Leadership

7Advantages of Democratic Leadership

8Disadvantages of Democratic Leadership

8Application of Democratic Leadership in Change Management

9Democratic Leadership in Conflict Resolution

9Leadership Resilience

10Resiliency Theory

10Resiliency Development Strategies

11Resiliency in Democratic Leadership Style

11Conclusion

Abstract

Leadership in nursing is an important aspect that requires proper application in modern heath facilities. Leadership is a process of identifying a goal that needs to be achieved in an organization and motivating employees towards achieving the particular goal. There are several leadership styles that have been identified to be effective in running of health facilities or organizations and they include Autocratic leadership, visionary leadership, transactional leadership, Leissez-faire leadership and democratic leadership. The paper looks at Democratic leadership in nursing, the history of democratic leadership its advantages and disadvantages and its application in change management and conflict resolution. The paper also analyses resilience in leadership, resilience development strategies and the application of resilience in democratic leadership

Introduction

In the nursing profession, a nurse manager’s leadership style has a lot of effects on the health facility’s operations and can also have positive or negative implications. A personal leadership style can determine certain important aspects of a workplace like employee productivity, a rate of turnover, and teamwork. The style of leadership in nursing can also influence a patient’s perception on healthcare because subordinate nurses are maybe unable to hide negativity or positive sentiments in the presence of their patients. Therefore, this paper will focus on democratic leadership style, its applications, and impacts, leadership resilience and resilience development strategies in the workplace.

Leadership in Nursing

Leadership in nursing is defined as the process of identifying a goal that needs to be achieved, motivating people to achieve the organizational goals as well as motivating employees in the processes of achieving the desired goal (Porter-Ogrady, 2013). Leadership in nursing has also been defined as the undeviating involvement in clinical care while influencing other employees to improve the health care they deliver to the patients (cook, 2012). The role of a leader is to improve and get effective performance from the subordinates by leading and influencing shared values and vision. In the traditional days, leaders were known to have different personalities from the follower’s Winkler, (2012). It is also believed that anyone can be a leader if they are impacted with the right knowledge and the required skills which can be advanced through proper education Crevani & Packendorff, (2014). It is believed that most successful organizations develop and build their leader’s emotional intelligence, social skills, and self-awareness. Emotional intelligence is the capacity to manage emotional relationships while dealing with the other employees (Walton, 2012).

Types of Leadership

Autocratic leadership

This type of leadership style involves a nurse manager or a leader who makes all the decisions, issues orders and directions to employees who are obligated to obey and follow the instructions under high supervision (Sellgren, Ekvall, & Tomson, 2014). This leadership style discourages employees from asking any questions regarding the directives given. Autocratic leadership style is used in workplaces like jails, military settings, prisons and places with routine operations because the people involved in this places follow specific orders which require being followed step by step (Chen, Beck, & Amos, 2013).

Visionary leadership

This type of leadership is characterized by leaders who motivate employees to pursue a common goal by providing proper guidance on what is to be achieved without the autocratic directions type of leadership. It encourages employees to take the necessary actions towards achieving a particular goal that the organization intends to achieve (Cummings, Mac Gregor, Davey, & Stafford, 2012). The leaders exchange information freely with the employees with the knowledge that they will succeed. This type of leadership is applicable when the healthcare facility requires a new direction in achieving its vision and mission.

Transactional leadership

This leadership style works in instances where punishments and rewards are administered to employees to ensure completion of tasks. This leadership style works on the notion that workers are solely motivated by rewards and discipline (Christopher & Castle, 2013). The leaders are not future oriented in managing the organization; they are rather focused on current achievements and completion of work. The leaders reward compliant staff with increased pay and vice versa (Tae, 2014).

Transformational leadership

This type of leadership involves inspiring subordinate employees do their best by the nurse leader being a role model and having an optimistic character in their way of doing their work (wong & Cummings, 2015). Employees are motivated to do their best by being awarded positive incentives as opposed to negative rewards. The qualities of a transformational leader comprise of motivating nurse leaders who inspire team building, innovation and creativity to enable staff members to achieve the organization’s goals (Chin, 2013).

Leissez-faire leadership

The type of leadership is a hand off leadership that allows workers the freedom to work with little or no supervision. The employees make their judgments while working and formulate their goals as well as resolving any challenges that may occur. This type of leadership is known to be more effective when leading staff are more motivated, self-directed with many more years, well-educated and highly skilled (Spinelli, 2015).

Democratic leadership

This type of leadership encourages heightened contribution from all the staff personnel in making decisions. The leader has the final say or judgment in decision making and therefore, he must gather the required information and include all the ideas from other employees and must also provide feedback. This makes the employees feel more valued hence leading to motivation. The leadership style is more successful in health facilities because of the varied skill sets and educational credentials of the employees (Paterson, 2013).

Democratic leadership is mostly patient-centred and recognizes that the personnel are the media through which the objectives are met by cooperation efforts between the team members and the leaders. The team leader can identify the nursing care goals, the needs of the team and focuses on how to fulfill those needs with a goal of achieving the organization’s goals (Huber, 2013).

History of Democratic Leadership

Democratic leadership is has become popular in the last decades and is commonly practiced today. The leadership style dates back to the 1930s and 1940s where a researcher by the name Kurt Lewin spearheaded studies to assist in identifying the importance of the democratic also commonly known as participative leadership style in organizations. They concluded that the most common leadership styles in organizations are democratic, laissez-faire and autocratic leadership styles are. They interviewed business leaders and employees where they came up with a conclusion that democratic leadership style was mostly preferred among subordinates (Grill, 2016).

Advantages of Democratic Leadership

This type of leadership involves all team members in the planning of patients nursing care through conferences, participation, and properly written nursing care plants. There is a positive working environment where employees feel appreciated because they feel a certain measure of control. Better decision making is an advantage in Democratic leadership since both aspects of positive and negative decisions are discussed by both the subordinates and the leader (Li, 2012). More creative solutions to problems are found in democratic leadership since problems are overlooked by more than one person. The organization experiences decreased employee turnover because the employees are more involved in all aspects of decision-making and problem solving (Lockwood, 2015).

Disadvantages of Democratic Leadership

Democratic leadership is time-consuming in the decision-making process. This can be disadvantageous if the organization has urgent decisions regarding projects since many individuals need to be consulted before a decision is made (Pratt & Stanley, 2014). Democratic leadership can be uncertain and appear as indecisive in times of major crisis because there is normally no time to address all the concerned parties. Therefore, the authoritarian role is used in such cases where instant decisions are required (Vigoda-Gadot, 2013).

Application of Democratic Leadership in Change Management

Changing democratic systems create far-reaching and difficult changes in modern health facilities. Change management assists in creating a clear and strategic process of managing unpredictable constant changes that occur. It uses a mix of participatory processes in engaging all parties in dialogue, decision making and equally bringing useful change to the employees. It assists in coping with constant unpredictable changes that may occur in managing health facilities and boosting patient’s loyalty. According to Tomey (2013), democratic leadership is more applicable when the cooperation and coordination of different groups are required in completion of tasks. This style of leadership is more applicable in management when implementing major changes in a healthcare facility since employee involvement in all levels of the organization is critical. In most cases, democratic leadership is known to be less effective than authoritative leadership style which is more preferred by many modern organizations while implementing the desired management changes (Jossie, 2011).

Democratic Leadership in Conflict Resolution

Conflict is defined as differences that occur between two opposing sides. Conflict occurs when one group feels that its means of achieving a goal or its predilections are being threatened (Oladitan, Ajibua, Ajayi, & Fashogbon B, 2013).

A study was done by students to determine which conflict resolution strategy is preferred by leaders in conflict resolution. The two leadership styles that were assessed were democratic leadership and autocratic leadership styles. The study showed that democratic leadership style was more preferred in conflict resolution as compared to autocratic leadership where leaders are more confrontational and forcing in giving directives and orders. Democratic leaders were found to use confrontational and smoothing and involvement in their leadership styles during conflict situations. The study also showed that managers who were evaluated responded by indicating that managerial competence perceptions of employees and satisfaction were more positive where democratic leadership style was used (Ozaralli, 2012).

Leadership Resilience

Resilience is the ability to return to a state of normalcy or to bounce back from trauma or a stressful state. Resilience is an important attribute in nursing because of the normal day to day stressful situations that nurse’s encounter in their line of duty. In nursing management and leadership, resilience is important because it promotes longevity and retention of employees. Resilience involves paying attention to the present situation, and it assists a leader in making decisions, acting and living in the present. It is strongly advised that leaders should ensure that leader’s subordinates at all level practice resilience to maintain good working relations between themselves and the patients who they serve. (Shaw & Maythorne, 2013)

Resiliency Theory

Richardsons, (2012) is a contributor of resiliency theories where he argues that the term resilience and resiliency have been created to signify the growth through disruption rather than recovering. He recommends results of the resiliency process which includes life stagnation, progression, and digression (Gillespie, Chaboyer, & Grimbeek, 2013).

Argues that the main use of resilience is to bounce back and find a way to proceed from life altering events and realizing real potential. Research has divided resilience into protective factors and factors like positive coping mechanisms and using social support mechanisms. There are also resilience risk factors that nurses may use in identified groups like soldiers, prisoners, and traumatized people. Exploratory and intervention based research has shown that the use of resilience as a mechanism for dealing with stress is only just starting, and there is much more discovery to be done (Gillespie, Chaboyer, & Grimbeek, 2013).

Resiliency Development Strategies

The greater the diversity of resilience strategies in an organization has, the greater the ability the institution has to respond to the challenges they are facing. Strategies give the organization a bigger platform to endure bigger problems. Risk management is a good strategy to overcome crises while maintaining resilience (Luthans & Youssef, 2013). Resilience is a strategy that creates a competitive edge in times of turbulence when organizations are faced with the challenges of changing rapidly. For a leader to invest in identifying their resilience weaknesses and strengths, they must invest in the organization’s strategy (Fottler, Malvey, & Slovenskey, 2015).

Resiliency in Democratic Leadership Style

A democratic leader involves employees in decision making in the organization. Through the process of interactions with the subordinates in problem solving and innovation, the leaders require high aspects of resilience (Veterinen, Suhen, & Paasivaara, 2012). Resilience assists an employee in identifying the most appropriate solutions that assist the organization in reaching the desired goals. For a democratic leader to return to normalcy or to bounce back to normalcy requires many attributes like a high level of competency in problem-solving. The leader must identify a position which brings resiliency to teams in the health facility as well as the individual levels. An organization that practices democratic leadership with resiliency creates a competitive edge and is in a better position to achieve both departmental and organizational goals (Greenfield, 2013).

Conclusion

Leadership in nursing has major effects in the health facilities day to day activities. There are leadership styles that have been identified in the last decades, and they include autocratic leadership, visionary leadership, transactional leadership, Leissez faire and democratic leadership styles. Research has shown that democratic leadership style is preferred by most leaders and subordinates in organizations. Democratic leadership style dates back in the 1930s and 1940s by Kurt Lewin. Democratic leadership has a characteristic of involving all employees in decision making. The leadership style has advantages that include better decision making, employee retention and it also increases creativity and innovation. Its main disadvantages include slow decision making and uncertainty where autocratic leadership style may be used in crises. Democratic leadership assists in coping with constant unpredictable changes that may occur in management and it is more preferred in conflict resolution. Resilience is the ability to return to a state of normalcy or to bounce back from trauma or a stressful state. Resilience is important in democratic leadership since they work hand in hand in the management of employees.

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