АССЕSS СОNТRОL SYSТЕМ DЕSIGN

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АССЕSS СОNТRОL SYSТЕМ DЕSIGN 15

АССЕSS СОNТRОL SYSТЕМ DЕSIGN

Table of Contents

4АССЕSS СОNТRОL SYSТЕМ DЕSIGN-Airports & Aviation Security Systems

5Design Justification

9Issues Associated with the Implementation of the Access Control System

9Quality Assurance

10Substitution of equipment

10Equipment Certification

11Integration with other systems

13Assumptions

15References

АССЕSS СОNТRОL SYSТЕМ DЕSIGN-Airports & Aviation Security Systems

The daily movement of an immense deal of passengers alongside the handling of high cargo and baggage handling depends on airports. Despite the financially aviation industry and economic downturns, there is likelihood that airlines and airports will record twofold security expenditures’ growth in the next 3-5 years (Atkinson, 2001). This will be in pursuit to handle the increasing threats associated with the aviation industry. An access control system for airports could be designed to secure and protect airport facilities against an array of threats. An ideal airport security system will be fully scalable thus the ability to provide solutions for a variety of airport or airfield sizes with complex security requirements(U.S. General Accounting Office. Aviation Security, 2000). Notably, the industry ought to ensure that security management solutions keep on evolving with change of requirements.

A key success of airports access system is the capability of ensuring security within the compounds of airports alongside the aircrafts that land and depart from the airport (Besanko, David A. and Braeutigam, Ronald, 2002). The contemporary aviation industry comes alongside need for tight security considering that international airports have become attractive targets for terror groups. It is also worth noting that interference with airports operations is capable of paralyzing economies and governments. This report has the primary objective of analyzing the design of next-generation technologies capable of preventing unconventional forms of attack. A key initiative will entail upgrading of Airport Pass Computerized System (APCS)-this system ought to be upgraded from APCS2 to APCS3 which is highly advanced (Branch-Brioso, Karen, 2002). The project is inclusive of design, development, installation, testing alongside commissioning of access monitoring and control system at different access locations at every airport buildings.

Design Justification

With the evolution of the aviation industry, there emerge unique challenges capable of testing the sector’s ingenuity. Ranging from ups and downs of the economic cycles to the huge costs for meeting the ever changing standards of security, alongside pressures aimed at reducing carbon footprints, airlines and airports are faced with enhancing need to make use of technology to achieve their security and business goals (Shy, 2001). Notably, all businesses have security concerns.

Information security, employee theft, and property crime are primary concerns for all contemporary companies. The main issues associated with airports are inclusive of staff and passenger safety, cargo theft, and managing access levels. It has been established that airlines and airport management authorities can meet all these challenges by the use of integrated security systems (Spagat, 2001). Modern access systems are of much essence in the maintenance of air passenger and staff safety. It is worth noting that air carriers ought to place key focus on passenger safety considering that their brand and reputation is dependent on it. It is also of paramount essence to manage the threats posed by aggressive passengers to staff. Modern access systems ought to be put in place considering the expansive open public areas and unattended bags.

Ideally, these systems can be enhanced by the use of video camera surveillance with the capability of recording high quality images (U.S. General Accounting Office. Aviation Security, 2000). The modern airport security systems will enable the quick transfer of video clips using DVD/USB for police investigations. The traditional airport security systems have mainly been standalones. However, later versions have seen the integration of different conventional systems to come up with a highly business centric focus. A modern access system will be inclusive of such security solutions as standalone access control, Fire systems, CCTV intrusion, and customized single screen solutions capable of integrating the various platforms and linking airport systems(U.S. General Accounting Office. Aviation Security, 2000). The end result will be a centralized control system capable of addressing the security department needs and giving crucial information to other areas of business.

Justification of the design of APCS3 also lies in its ability to provide restricted access system solutions. In current threat climate it is essential to make sure that restricted areas are only accessed by authorized personnel only. This can be achieved by the use of electronic security systems. The APCS3 design will have specific features capable of meeting the needs of an aviation setting, from advanced door monitoring to the capability of using portable readers. Notably, these readers are capable of validating staff ID at remote areas that may lack cabling infrastructure (Kunreuther, Howard and Heal, Geoffrey, 2002). In the event of increased level of threat, it is possible to change the system operation to reflect the high level of threat (Flynn, Stephen E, 2002). Consequently, this will result to a change of individual access levels, and high levels of security. It is also possible to use the access control system in such areas as safety and health by ensuring that equipmentis used only by trained personnel.

Justification of the access system also lies in its ability to handle airport cargo theft. Such ground logistics as baggage offloading, cargo handling, and aircraft refueling ought to be monitored effectively to ensure smooth running of airports. The use of an integrated access control and video system, all these are monitored events and alarms captured with the objective of insuring the tracking of high value cargo and such incidents as theft, injury, and accidents (Glaeser, 2001).

APCS is considered a computerized system available for use by airport police divisions in the production of airport security passes for visitors and staff to visit restricted areas in airports. At the moment, APCS2 has the capability of producing a PVC access pass that displays the pass holder photograph and the security zones he/she is authorized to access(Kunreuther, Howard and Heal, Geoffrey, 2002). The design of the new APCS3 will entail a dual-interface smartcard bearing encoded facial image and fingerprint template for the process of off-card matching authentication.

The APCS3 will exhibit adherence to conventional Intelligent Biometric Access Controls standards. These are a set of security standards for biometric systems capable of controlling door access thus increasing physical security at government premises and sensitive installations. The standards that will be followed by the APCS3 will have the capability of ensuring the security of access control systems with reliable identification forms on grounds of sound criteria for the verification of the identity of people using airports. The access system ought to create room for rapid electronic authentication alongside having strong resistance for the identification of identity fraud, terrorist exploitation, counterfeiting, and tampering (Hansen, Jane O. and Tamman, Maurice, 2001). The airport security passes (based on smartcard) will make use of SmartVIP Lite specifications outlined by Intelligent Biometric Access Controls standards. Several contemporary governments have supported this initiative by setting up the SmartVIP visa identification-this refers to a biometric-enabled smart passport already approved by the International Civil Aviation Organization. The design of the access system that will be developed can also be justified by its acceptance by the International Standards Organization(Hart, Oliver; Schleifer, Andrei and Vishny, Robert, 1997). Indeed, it has been considered a comprehensive solution with a primary objective of providing a seamlessly integrated, effective, and efficient border management solution thus fostering security checks and physicalsecurity of the aviation industry. It has been established that SmartVIP is in compliance with the International Civil Aviation Organization’s guidelines for travel documents that are machine-readable. APCS3 supports both active and passive authentication mechanisms outlined by ICAO for verification of travel documents. Ideally, the SmartVIP Lite entails a light-weight version whose design is aimed at applications that call for strong security but with the absence of additional security features and advanced functions. The specification of SmartVIP is drawn from SmartVIP and has streamlined structure with the objective of optimal cost-performance ratio with no compromise of access control systems’ security (Hart, Oliver; Schleifer, Andrei and Vishny, Robert, 1997). These security passes can only be issued by providers whose reliability has been approved by an officialaccreditation process.

An access control system, utilizing the APCS design has successfully been installed in the Changi Airport in Singapore and has been accredited by the Intelligent Nation Biometric Access Controls, INBAC (Kunreuther, Howard and Heal, Geoffrey, 2002). The installation has been described as robust, cost-effective, and easy to use, adhering to the standards of real world mission-critical installations. On top of the provision of user-friendly pass application, personalization, and enrolment tools, APCS technology has been found to be crucial in the management of track movements and access control of people visiting sensitive areas(Kunreuther, Howard and Heal, Geoffrey, 2002).

Issues Associated with the Implementation of the Access Control System

Quality Assurance

Prior to the implementation of the access control access system, a contractor certification will be requirement(Kunreuther, Howard and Heal, Geoffrey, 2002). The Security Systems Contractor ought to have the approval of certified security systems installer for the particular type of access control system being installed. The proof of certification will be subject to submission of a copy of the certificate bearing the bid. In addition, a visual inspection of the installations ought to be carried out by the Security Systems Contractor’s Quality Assurance Inspector with an objective of verifying the design and standard of materials used in the installation(Kunreuther, Howard and Heal, Geoffrey, 2002). The design engineer ought to be presented with inspection records bearing signatures of the Quality Assurance inspector. The Security Systems Contractor ought to provide the design engineer with notifications of inspections that will be carried out.

Substitution of equipment

The implementation of the access control system is subject to approval of alternate material or equipment. It is a requirement for the Security Systems Contractor to make a submission of evidence supporting the contention that the material proposed for substitution is of the specified standards (Marks, 2002). There may be also cases where the design engineer will be required to offer additional services following substitution of equipment or materials by the Security Systems Contractor. There are also cases in which the Security Systems Engineer may have to carry gout an examination and evaluation of changes that have been proposed with an objective of enhancing convenience and the Security Systems Contractor. In such a situation, the contract will have to pay the expenses incurred by the design engineer in the course of the additional services.

Equipment Certification

Before the implementation of the project, materials ought to be examined and evaluated to meet the minimum requirements. The electrical systems and equipment used in the development of the project ought to meet the standards outlined by the International Civil Aviation Organization and ISO(McTague, 2002). It is worth noting that these requirements are applicable for the entire assembly. Equipment may be modified with the objective of meeting the intended requirements; it is worth noting that such modifications can only be carried out in accordance with requirements of ISO and the International Civil Aviation Organization (McTague, 2002). It is also a requirement to use new materials that meet the specifications of the manufacturer unless specified otherwise. The development of the project cannot make use of damaged or used materials. Notably, the manufacturer’s listing of “acceptance” does not have the implication that the equipment meets the standards of ISO and the International Civil Aviation Organization.

Integration with other systems

The Access control System designed using APCS3 technology can be integrated with XS4 RFID system, which is a unique system using cylinders and escutcheons for an immense deal of control applications (Morrison, 2002). The XS4 RFID system has unique strength in that it can be upgraded at any time. The system is ideal for expansive commercial applications considering such benefits as a standalone access control, cost-effectiveness, and compactness. The system supports easy use of Pro Access ROM software capable of being customized with an objective of suiting the needs of a commercial company. Any changes that need to be done on new users, updating the escutcheon or the e-cylinder, deleting some users, and getting the event audit trail are done via its Pro Access ROM software, with the transmission of the changes being made via the Portable Programming Device, PPD(Morrison, 2002). The software has the capability of downloading the battery status of the system each time the user connects the PDD to a wall reader, e-cylinder, or escutcheon. As a result, the user is capable of programming for plan maintenance at his/her convenience. Consequently, the user will be ableto issue management reports on people’s movements in the premises of the airport (O’Connor, 2001).

The main features and benefits of the XS4 RFID system are inclusive of its computerization. Ideally, the system is computer managed allowing monitoring of access flows, removing users and adding profiles of new users, the configuration of the electronic escutcheon, and recording access. The system is fit for large commercial applications as airports as a result of its capability of managing up to 64000 doors and 1600 users. In addition, the system is characteristic of seven different opening modes thus suiting the needs in expansive airports and airfields ((Morrison, 2002). The system is also characteristic of 30 time zones and four calendars held in e-cylinder memory or the electronic escutcheon. The upgrading of the system can simply make use of a PPD; this makes it possible for the user to upgrade data when need arises (Moses, Leon N. and Savage, Ian, 1990).

The access control system will also be integrated with typical security communications thus adding such equipment as SMS, CCTV, CIS, BIO, ACS, and MDAS.

АССЕSS СОNТRОL SYSТЕМ DЕSIGN

Figure 1: Typical Security Communications

The system can also be integrated with CCTV application over SYSTMAX GigaSPEED cabling with the PTZ signal being superimposed in a composite video signal. This application has a typical requirement of balun adapters (Oates, 1972).

АССЕSS СОNТRОL SYSТЕМ DЕSIGN 1

Figure 2: CCTV application over SYSTMAX GigaSPEED cabling with PTZ signal

Assumptions

A number of assumptions will be done in the development and implementation of the Airport Access Control System.

The installation will be developed a commercial international airport experiencing a high traffic of passengers and cargo. This is to make the project viable with respect to costs of development and realization of revenues after its completion.

The installation is aimed for an international airport frequently recording visitors from various parts of the world and different levels; this is to limit the access of individuals to areas that are not authorized.

The development of the access control system will involve both private investors and the government; this is to ensure that the system is available for use by airport police unites to launch investigations in times of threat.

References

Atkinson, Robert D. (2001). “How Technology Can Help Make Air Travel Safe Again.” Policy Report, Progressive Policy Institute.

Besanko, David A. and Braeutigam, Ronald R. (2002). Microeconomics: An Integrated Approach. New York: Wiley.

Branch-Brioso, Karen. (2002). “U.S. Official Backs ‘Trusted Traveler’ Plan for Airports.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch,, p. A3.

Shy, Oz. (2001). The Economics of Network Industries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Spagat, Elliot. (2001). “Sophisticated Bag Scanners Fail to Catch On As Airlines Complain of Delays, False Alarms.” Wall Street Journal Online.

U.S. General Accounting Office. Aviation Security. (2000). LongStanding Problems Impair Airport Screeners’ Performance.Washington, DC.

Flynn, Stephen E. “America the Vulnerable.” Foreign Affairs, January/February 2002, 81(1), pp. 60-74.

Glaeser, Edward L. (2001). “Public Ownership in the American City.” Working Paper No. W8613, National Bureau of EconomicResearch, December 2001.

Hansen, Jane O. and Tamman, Maurice. (2001). “UGA Fan’s Hunt forCamera Bag Turns World’s Busiest Airport into Haltsfield.”The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, , p. A.1.

Hart, Oliver; Schleifer, Andrei and Vishny, Robert W. (1997). “TheProper Scope of Government: Theory and Application toPrisons.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112(4), pp. 1127-61.

Kunreuther, Howard and Heal, Geoffrey. (2002). “Interdependent Security: The Case of Identical Agents.” Working PaperNo. W8871, National Bureau of Economic Research,.

Marks, Paul. (2002). “Flight Attendants Find Security Abusive.”Hartford Courant, 18 February 2002.

McTague, Jim. (2002). “Wanted: Wyatt Earps.” Barron’s, 4, pp. 21-22.

Morrison, Blake. (2002). “Tests Show No Screening Improvements Post-Sept. 11.” USA Today, 25, p. A4.

Moses, Leon N. and Savage, Ian. (1990). “Aviation Deregulation and Safety.” Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, , 24(2), pp. 171-88.

Oates, Wallace E. (1972). Fiscal Federalism. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1972.

O’Connor, William E. (2001). An Introduction to Airline Economics. New York: Praeger.